Journal of Archives in Military Medicine Journal of Archives in Military Medicine J Arch Mil Med http://www.jammonline.com 2345-5071 2345-5063 10.5812/jamm en jalali 2017 6 24 gregorian 2017 6 24 1 1
en 10.5812/jamm.15082 From the Persian Ancient Dramas, Jamm and Simurgh Toward the Modern Military Medicine From the Persian Ancient Dramas, Jamm and Simurgh Toward the Modern Military Medicine editorial editorial History of Medicine; Persian History; Military Medicine History of Medicine; Persian History; Military Medicine 1 5 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=15082 Ali Reza Khoshdel Ali Reza Khoshdel Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; P.O.Box: 16315-781, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188337909 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; P.O.Box: 16315-781, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188337909 Mohammad Hossein Lashkari Mohammad Hossein Lashkari Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.13890 Epidemiology of Human Fascioliasis Outbreaks in Iran Epidemiology of Human Fascioliasis Outbreaks in Iran review-article review-article

The increase in number of human fascioliasis and its outbreaks in the last two decades have changed the status of fascioliasis from a zoonosis to an immerging health problem. The infection is found in 61 countries where 160 million peoples are at risk.

Fasciola infection in livestock may be found in some parts of Iran with various infection rates in cattle. As the human infection was rarely reported with patchy distribution in some provinces of Iran, the condition was changed since 1989 when the first outbreak of human fascioliasis occurred in Gilan Province located in north of Iran where about 10,000 people found infected and total number of infected cases estimated to be 2465. The contributing factors of the outbreak were higher number of rainfalls, using the infested water and high consumption of wild aquatic plants in infested areas. Various methods applied for identification of Fasciola species leading to human infection in infected areas revealed that three species of Fasciola, namely, F. hepatica, F. gigantica and a hybrid of the two species the causes of infection. The role of local snails in transmission of the infection was determined and using the serodiagnostic methods for future epidemiological survey was recommended.

The increase in number of human fascioliasis and its outbreaks in the last two decades have changed the status of fascioliasis from a zoonosis to an immerging health problem. The infection is found in 61 countries where 160 million peoples are at risk.

Fasciola infection in livestock may be found in some parts of Iran with various infection rates in cattle. As the human infection was rarely reported with patchy distribution in some provinces of Iran, the condition was changed since 1989 when the first outbreak of human fascioliasis occurred in Gilan Province located in north of Iran where about 10,000 people found infected and total number of infected cases estimated to be 2465. The contributing factors of the outbreak were higher number of rainfalls, using the infested water and high consumption of wild aquatic plants in infested areas. Various methods applied for identification of Fasciola species leading to human infection in infected areas revealed that three species of Fasciola, namely, F. hepatica, F. gigantica and a hybrid of the two species the causes of infection. The role of local snails in transmission of the infection was determined and using the serodiagnostic methods for future epidemiological survey was recommended.

Fascioliasis;Fasciola;Disease Outbreaks;Iran Fascioliasis;Fasciola;Disease Outbreaks;Iran 6 12 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=13890 Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran Fereydoun Arfaa Fereydoun Arfaa Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran; School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-217616668479, Fax: +98-217616668478 Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran; School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-217616668479, Fax: +98-217616668478
en 10.5812/jamm.14652 Jet Lag in Military and Civil Aviation: A Review Study Jet Lag in Military and Civil Aviation: A Review Study review-article review-article Conclusions

Due to the progressive development of aviation and intercontinental travels, the awareness about jet lag and its complications, prevention and treatment for all population especially aviators and medical groups are necessary.

Materials and Methods

The current study is a review article based on the literature in the field of aerospace medicine. It is hoped that this presentation would be useful for those who are interested in aviation medicine.

Results

Jet Lag usually experienced by individuals who cross at least 2 time zones by intercontinental flights. Symptoms and signs usually reveal after 1-2 days of arrival in relation with circadian system complication and cause insomnia, sleepiness, general malaise, gastrointestinal upset (anorexia, indigestion and defecation disorders), neural (fatigue, headaches, and irritability) and cognitive impairments (concentration, judgment and memory disturbance), etc. Eastward travel requires an advance phase and these persons often complain about initiating sleep at early evening and being awake at early morning. Thus, eastbound travelers have difficult adaptation and worsen features rather than westbound travelers. The incidence of jet lag often has not been reported, so the accurate prevalence is uncertain.

Background

Physiological or behavioral cycles are generated by an internal pacemaker with an oscillatory frequency of approximately 24.2 hours which are named as circadian rhythm. This internal pacemaker is located at hypothalamus as suprachiasmatic nucleus and control sleep-wake cycle, with wakefulness commonly promoted during daylight hours and sleep promoted during evening hours.

Objectives

The aim of this article is to provide a framework for understanding the biological basis of jet lag and recommend management strategies. Understanding jet lag can help us to address the broader problem of circadian misalignment, which has increasingly been associated with increased risk of cancer (colorectal and breast), metabolic diseases, cardiovascular dysfunction, mood disorders (depression), and cognitive decline.

Conclusions

Due to the progressive development of aviation and intercontinental travels, the awareness about jet lag and its complications, prevention and treatment for all population especially aviators and medical groups are necessary.

Materials and Methods

The current study is a review article based on the literature in the field of aerospace medicine. It is hoped that this presentation would be useful for those who are interested in aviation medicine.

Results

Jet Lag usually experienced by individuals who cross at least 2 time zones by intercontinental flights. Symptoms and signs usually reveal after 1-2 days of arrival in relation with circadian system complication and cause insomnia, sleepiness, general malaise, gastrointestinal upset (anorexia, indigestion and defecation disorders), neural (fatigue, headaches, and irritability) and cognitive impairments (concentration, judgment and memory disturbance), etc. Eastward travel requires an advance phase and these persons often complain about initiating sleep at early evening and being awake at early morning. Thus, eastbound travelers have difficult adaptation and worsen features rather than westbound travelers. The incidence of jet lag often has not been reported, so the accurate prevalence is uncertain.

Background

Physiological or behavioral cycles are generated by an internal pacemaker with an oscillatory frequency of approximately 24.2 hours which are named as circadian rhythm. This internal pacemaker is located at hypothalamus as suprachiasmatic nucleus and control sleep-wake cycle, with wakefulness commonly promoted during daylight hours and sleep promoted during evening hours.

Objectives

The aim of this article is to provide a framework for understanding the biological basis of jet lag and recommend management strategies. Understanding jet lag can help us to address the broader problem of circadian misalignment, which has increasingly been associated with increased risk of cancer (colorectal and breast), metabolic diseases, cardiovascular dysfunction, mood disorders (depression), and cognitive decline.

Jet Lag Syndrome;Aviation;Cyrcadian Rhythm Jet Lag Syndrome;Aviation;Cyrcadian Rhythm 13 18 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=14652 Hamze Shahali Hamze Shahali Aerospace and Diving Medical Faculty, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Aerospace and Diving Medical Faculty, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188335769, Fax: +98-2188632093 Aerospace and Diving Medical Faculty, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Aerospace and Diving Medical Faculty, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188335769, Fax: +98-2188632093 Azade Amirabadi Farahani Azade Amirabadi Farahani Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.13809 Subcloning and Expression of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) P4 Gene Subcloning and Expression of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) P4 Gene research-article research-article Background

Leishmania major p4 gene is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum at the intracellular amastigote stage.

Objectives

We expressed this gene for possible future vaccine preparation, drug target studies, and leishmaniasis serodiagnosis test.

Materials and Methods

The Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) p4 gene, which had been subcloned into the pQE-30 expression vector, was induced by IPTG. Recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE followed by a double diffusion and western blot using an anti His-tag antibody or human antibody.

Results

Production of protein with approximately 35 kDa molecular weight in E. coli M15 transformed cells was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, which reacted with antibodies of leishmaniasis serum using double diffusion and western blot tests and either for anti His-tag antibody using western blot.

Conclusions

We have expressed the Iranian L. major p4 gene successfully and are ready to continue the research for vaccine production. Positive results from the western blot and double diffusion test suggest the hypothesis of using this Ag in diagnostic tests. We used the pQE-30 plasmid as an expression vector, which has high quantity of expressed p4 protein

Background

Leishmania major p4 gene is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum at the intracellular amastigote stage.

Objectives

We expressed this gene for possible future vaccine preparation, drug target studies, and leishmaniasis serodiagnosis test.

Materials and Methods

The Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) p4 gene, which had been subcloned into the pQE-30 expression vector, was induced by IPTG. Recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE followed by a double diffusion and western blot using an anti His-tag antibody or human antibody.

Results

Production of protein with approximately 35 kDa molecular weight in E. coli M15 transformed cells was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, which reacted with antibodies of leishmaniasis serum using double diffusion and western blot tests and either for anti His-tag antibody using western blot.

Conclusions

We have expressed the Iranian L. major p4 gene successfully and are ready to continue the research for vaccine production. Positive results from the western blot and double diffusion test suggest the hypothesis of using this Ag in diagnostic tests. We used the pQE-30 plasmid as an expression vector, which has high quantity of expressed p4 protein

p4 gene;Gene Expression;Leishmania major;Subcloning p4 gene;Gene Expression;Leishmania major;Subcloning 19 23 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=13809 Minoo Shaddel Minoo Shaddel Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hormozed Oormazdi Hormozed Oormazdi Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188058653, Fax: +98-2188007234 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188058653, Fax: +98-2188007234 Lame Akhlaghi Lame Akhlaghi Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Bahram Kazemi Bahram Kazemi Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mojgan Bandehpour Mojgan Bandehpour Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Molecular and Cellular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.14609 Stimulated Saliva Glucose as a Diagnostic Specimen for Detection of Diabetes Mellitus Stimulated Saliva Glucose as a Diagnostic Specimen for Detection of Diabetes Mellitus research-article research-article Conclusions

It can be concluded that salivary level of glucose may reflect the serum values.It seems that salivary glucose can be used as an alternative of serum glucose for diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus.

Results

The mean of stimulated whole saliva glucose level was significantly higher in the case than in the control group (P = 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between serum and saliva glucose concentration (r = 0.64, P = 0. 001).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the stimulated saliva glucose as a diagnostic specimen in clinical practices for detection of diabetes mellitus.

Patients and Methods

A case-control study was carried out on 30 patients with diabetes mellitus aged 25-71 years (mean ± SEM: 53.7 ± 1.2) who hospitalized with diabetes side effects, and 30 healthy control subjects aged 25-71 (52.7 ± 1.9) years. Serum and saliva samples were obtained. Glucose level was determined by an enzymatic colorimetric GOD-PAP assay. Statistical analysis of the Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used.

Background

Saliva is believed to be a mirror of the body, and may be acknowledged as a promising medium for monitoring health and disease condition of an individual in healthcare programs.

Conclusions

It can be concluded that salivary level of glucose may reflect the serum values.It seems that salivary glucose can be used as an alternative of serum glucose for diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus.

Results

The mean of stimulated whole saliva glucose level was significantly higher in the case than in the control group (P = 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between serum and saliva glucose concentration (r = 0.64, P = 0. 001).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the stimulated saliva glucose as a diagnostic specimen in clinical practices for detection of diabetes mellitus.

Patients and Methods

A case-control study was carried out on 30 patients with diabetes mellitus aged 25-71 years (mean ± SEM: 53.7 ± 1.2) who hospitalized with diabetes side effects, and 30 healthy control subjects aged 25-71 (52.7 ± 1.9) years. Serum and saliva samples were obtained. Glucose level was determined by an enzymatic colorimetric GOD-PAP assay. Statistical analysis of the Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used.

Background

Saliva is believed to be a mirror of the body, and may be acknowledged as a promising medium for monitoring health and disease condition of an individual in healthcare programs.

Glucose;Diabetes Mellitus;Saliva Glucose;Diabetes Mellitus;Saliva 24 27 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=14609 Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188337921 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188337921 Mohammad-Reza Mirzaii-Dizgah Mohammad-Reza Mirzaii-Dizgah School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad-Hossein Mirzaii-Dizgah Mohammad-Hossein Mirzaii-Dizgah Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.14933 Factors Associated With Renal and Urological Complications in Patients Suffering From Spinal Cord Injuries During Subsequent Years of Post-Injury Factors Associated With Renal and Urological Complications in Patients Suffering From Spinal Cord Injuries During Subsequent Years of Post-Injury research-article research-article Background

Renal and urological complications are the main causes of mortality and morbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Besides clinical risk factors, there are environmental predisposing factors making a patient prone to develop any complications.

Objectives

The present study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of developing nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis and renal failure, as the main renal and urological complications in the SCI patients.

Materials and Methods

The database of SCI patients of State Welfare Organization of Iran (SWOI) was used for data gathering. The data were collected between 2008 and 2010 by 222 separate teams consisting of 6 mobile rehabilitation team members. The independent risk factors of developing nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis and renal failure were recognized by controlling the confounders after entering all biologically plausible variables in multivariate regression models.

Results

Complete information was available for 5901 (72.59%) of the patients. Urologic and renal complications were reported in 2358 (40%) of the patients among which 286 (4.8%) had chronic renal failure, 127 (2.2%) from hydronephrosis, 307 (5.2%) from nephrolithiasis and 2138 (36.2%) from urinary tract infection. Generally, renal and urological complications associated with old age, and more time since SCI; however, lumbar level of injury and living in rural area negatively correlated with renal and urological complications.

Conclusions

SCI patients with and without renal and urological complications are different regarding demographic and environmental factors; hence, it is necessary to determine the modifiable risk factors in patients' life-style to design preventive programs.

Background

Renal and urological complications are the main causes of mortality and morbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Besides clinical risk factors, there are environmental predisposing factors making a patient prone to develop any complications.

Objectives

The present study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of developing nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis and renal failure, as the main renal and urological complications in the SCI patients.

Materials and Methods

The database of SCI patients of State Welfare Organization of Iran (SWOI) was used for data gathering. The data were collected between 2008 and 2010 by 222 separate teams consisting of 6 mobile rehabilitation team members. The independent risk factors of developing nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis and renal failure were recognized by controlling the confounders after entering all biologically plausible variables in multivariate regression models.

Results

Complete information was available for 5901 (72.59%) of the patients. Urologic and renal complications were reported in 2358 (40%) of the patients among which 286 (4.8%) had chronic renal failure, 127 (2.2%) from hydronephrosis, 307 (5.2%) from nephrolithiasis and 2138 (36.2%) from urinary tract infection. Generally, renal and urological complications associated with old age, and more time since SCI; however, lumbar level of injury and living in rural area negatively correlated with renal and urological complications.

Conclusions

SCI patients with and without renal and urological complications are different regarding demographic and environmental factors; hence, it is necessary to determine the modifiable risk factors in patients' life-style to design preventive programs.

Spinal Cord Injuries;Kidney Diseases;Urologic Diseases Spinal Cord Injuries;Kidney Diseases;Urologic Diseases 28 34 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=14933 Banafshe Dormanesh Banafshe Dormanesh AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188028935 AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188028935 Mohammad Khak Mohammad Khak AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Vafa Rahimimovaghar Vafa Rahimimovaghar Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center (STSRC), Department of Neurosurgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center (STSRC), Department of Neurosurgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.14608 Investigating the Frequency of Postural Anomalies and the Effect of Military Training Courses and Presenting the Corrective Plans Investigating the Frequency of Postural Anomalies and the Effect of Military Training Courses and Presenting the Corrective Plans research-article research-article Conclusions

The military training course has a positive effect on the recovery of the postural anomalies and can lead to other anomalies, thus, we should prevent this condition by changing the physical activity plans and making the soldiers aware of the physical fitness.

Background

Postural anomalies refer to the adverse changing which deforms the skeletal structure and natural height, these anomalies appear due to the environmental reasons, improper muscular function and physical movements and its recovery depends on removing the related factors

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the frequency of postural anomalies in soldiers and the effect of military training courses and present the corrective plans.

Materials and Methods

In this cross sectional study that was performed in October 2011, fifty new coming soldiers from training center of military force of Sanandaj were selected randomly and their postural anomalies were evaluated two months before and after the military training courses, using the Ridko form and cross board. The obtained scores were analyzed using the descriptive statistics and t-test.

Results

Overall, the round back anomalies were in the worst condition before the military training with the mean score of 5.6 and the two- month training course had a positive effect on the recovery of the round back anomalies and made other kinds of postural anomalies worse. Anomalies like uneven shoulder, neck flexion, round back and lordosis in soldiers were compared before and after the military training period and the results were its statistically significant (P = 0.000, P = 0.021, P = 0.000, P = 0.000).

Conclusions

The military training course has a positive effect on the recovery of the postural anomalies and can lead to other anomalies, thus, we should prevent this condition by changing the physical activity plans and making the soldiers aware of the physical fitness.

Background

Postural anomalies refer to the adverse changing which deforms the skeletal structure and natural height, these anomalies appear due to the environmental reasons, improper muscular function and physical movements and its recovery depends on removing the related factors

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the frequency of postural anomalies in soldiers and the effect of military training courses and present the corrective plans.

Materials and Methods

In this cross sectional study that was performed in October 2011, fifty new coming soldiers from training center of military force of Sanandaj were selected randomly and their postural anomalies were evaluated two months before and after the military training courses, using the Ridko form and cross board. The obtained scores were analyzed using the descriptive statistics and t-test.

Results

Overall, the round back anomalies were in the worst condition before the military training with the mean score of 5.6 and the two- month training course had a positive effect on the recovery of the round back anomalies and made other kinds of postural anomalies worse. Anomalies like uneven shoulder, neck flexion, round back and lordosis in soldiers were compared before and after the military training period and the results were its statistically significant (P = 0.000, P = 0.021, P = 0.000, P = 0.000).

Postural;Abnormalities;Military Personnel;Military Training Course;Corrective Plans Postural;Abnormalities;Military Personnel;Military Training Course;Corrective Plans 35 38 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=14608 Kamran Azma Kamran Azma Clinical Biomechanical and Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Clinical Biomechanical and Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohamad Himan Hajebi Mohamad Himan Hajebi Facultyof Sport Science, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Sport Science, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188774956, Fax: +98-8713245310 Facultyof Sport Science, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, IR Iran; Faculty of Sport Science, Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188774956, Fax: +98-8713245310 Iman Nasseh Iman Nasseh Clinical Biomechanical and Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Clinical Biomechanical and Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Masoume Abedi Masoume Abedi Clinical Biomechanical and Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Clinical Biomechanical and Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.14550 Evaluation of Physical Fitness and Body Composition Indices in Iranian Military Officer Trainees Evaluation of Physical Fitness and Body Composition Indices in Iranian Military Officer Trainees research-article research-article Background

Physical activities during military services must not only provide appropriate body fitness and health but also should reduce the physical and psychological problems.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the physical fitness and body composition measures of male military officer trainees and compare them with those of APFT and WHO standards.

Materials and Methods

In this research, 150 junior and senior officer trainees (75 in each group) were randomly selected and their body composition as well as cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance were compared. Their mean age was 18.5 ± 0.5 and 23.1 ± 0.31 years; they had mean weight of 65.0 ± 7.05 and 67.4 ± 8.13 kg, and mean height of 174.4 ± 5.38 and 174.1 ± 5.68, respectively.

Results

There was a significant difference in the physical fitness indices (cardiovascular and muscular endurance) between junior and senior officer trainees (P < 0.05), and the senior officers had a higher rank. Both groups obtained the highest ranks based on APFT standard. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of BMI and BF% based on WHO and Western Army Standard (P > 0.05) and both were in normal range.

Conclusions

Military officer trainees have a good physical fitness and body composition standard which is possibly due to the appropriate physical activities during their training courses.

Background

Physical activities during military services must not only provide appropriate body fitness and health but also should reduce the physical and psychological problems.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the physical fitness and body composition measures of male military officer trainees and compare them with those of APFT and WHO standards.

Materials and Methods

In this research, 150 junior and senior officer trainees (75 in each group) were randomly selected and their body composition as well as cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance were compared. Their mean age was 18.5 ± 0.5 and 23.1 ± 0.31 years; they had mean weight of 65.0 ± 7.05 and 67.4 ± 8.13 kg, and mean height of 174.4 ± 5.38 and 174.1 ± 5.68, respectively.

Results

There was a significant difference in the physical fitness indices (cardiovascular and muscular endurance) between junior and senior officer trainees (P < 0.05), and the senior officers had a higher rank. Both groups obtained the highest ranks based on APFT standard. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of BMI and BF% based on WHO and Western Army Standard (P > 0.05) and both were in normal range.

Conclusions

Military officer trainees have a good physical fitness and body composition standard which is possibly due to the appropriate physical activities during their training courses.

Physical Fitness;Body Composition;Military Personnel Physical Fitness;Body Composition;Military Personnel 39 42 http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=14550 Ali Reza Khoshdel Ali Reza Khoshdel Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188337909, Fax: +98-2188337909 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188337909, Fax: +98-2188337909 Ali Emami Ali Emami Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammadreza Kordi Mohammadreza Kordi Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran Farshad Najafipour Farshad Najafipour Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran