Journal of Archives in Military Medicine Journal of Archives in Military Medicine J Arch Mil Med http://www.jammonline.com 2345-5071 2345-5063 10.5812/jamm en jalali 2017 6 24 gregorian 2017 6 24 3 2
en 10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.26664 The Effectiveness of Non-governmental Organizations in Promoting the Awareness of Hypertension and Self-Control Management Measures of Families The Effectiveness of Non-governmental Organizations in Promoting the Awareness of Hypertension and Self-Control Management Measures of Families research-article research-article Conclusions

Holding workshops by NGOs to train volunteers on hypertension is a helpful method to increase awareness about hypertension and control measures in patients with high blood pressure.

Results

Approximately half of the volunteers aged between 21 and 30 years, 94% of them were female and 68% of this cohort was single at the time of the study. Approximately 46% of the volunteers had an education level equivalent to a diploma. Paired-samples t test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the scores of awareness before and after education in both groups.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to promote awareness of hypertension and self-control management methods in families in Ardabil, Iran.

Patients and Methods

In 2007, a quasi-experimental study was completed with the collaboration of local volunteers in Ardabil. A total of 84 volunteers and 121 patients with hypertension were included in the study. Educational workshops were held for the volunteers by the NGO (Saman) and patients were educated by the volunteers. Thereafter, both groups were assessed for awareness by using self-administered questionnaires. The data was then statistically analyzed by paired t-test.

Background

Despite the known risks of having high blood pressure, there is still a high prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension cases in society. A number of suggestions have been put forth over the years to counteract this issue. One suggestion was implementing a screening program; however, there was a high cost as well as a fear of low accessibility from lower socio-economic classes. Alternatively, there has been a suggestion to raise the degree of awareness about the risks of having high blood pressure.

Conclusions

Holding workshops by NGOs to train volunteers on hypertension is a helpful method to increase awareness about hypertension and control measures in patients with high blood pressure.

Results

Approximately half of the volunteers aged between 21 and 30 years, 94% of them were female and 68% of this cohort was single at the time of the study. Approximately 46% of the volunteers had an education level equivalent to a diploma. Paired-samples t test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the scores of awareness before and after education in both groups.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to promote awareness of hypertension and self-control management methods in families in Ardabil, Iran.

Patients and Methods

In 2007, a quasi-experimental study was completed with the collaboration of local volunteers in Ardabil. A total of 84 volunteers and 121 patients with hypertension were included in the study. Educational workshops were held for the volunteers by the NGO (Saman) and patients were educated by the volunteers. Thereafter, both groups were assessed for awareness by using self-administered questionnaires. The data was then statistically analyzed by paired t-test.

Background

Despite the known risks of having high blood pressure, there is still a high prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension cases in society. A number of suggestions have been put forth over the years to counteract this issue. One suggestion was implementing a screening program; however, there was a high cost as well as a fear of low accessibility from lower socio-economic classes. Alternatively, there has been a suggestion to raise the degree of awareness about the risks of having high blood pressure.

Organizations;Education;Hypertension;Volunteers;Iran Organizations;Education;Hypertension;Volunteers;Iran http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26664 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Saeid Safiri Saeid Safiri Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-4133373741 Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-4133373741 Mostafa Farahbakhsh Mostafa Farahbakhsh Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Razi Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Razi Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Shahram Habibzadeh Shahram Habibzadeh Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IR Iran Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IR Iran Alireza Nikniaz Alireza Nikniaz National Public Health Management Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran National Public Health Management Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Ahmad Kousha Ahmad Kousha Department of Health Education and Promotion, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Health Education and Promotion, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Harshani Jayasinghe Harshani Jayasinghe Clinical Practice Unit, The Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, Respiratory Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Clinical Practice Unit, The Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, Respiratory Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Alieh Yousefi Alieh Yousefi Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IR Iran Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.26799 Anesthesiologic and Surgical Experiences of the Spanish Role 2 Enhanced in Herat, Afghanistan Anesthesiologic and Surgical Experiences of the Spanish Role 2 Enhanced in Herat, Afghanistan research-article research-article Conclusions

During the study period, 745 patients were treated, including 10 combat casualties. Twelve general anesthesias, 11 regional anesthesias (three intradural anaesthesias, three interscalene blocks, one axillary block, four femoral blocks), and six local anaesthesias with sedation were performed. Twelve patients were admitted to the ICU. These anesthesiological and surgical experiences can be helpful in future military deployments.

Objectives

The current report aimed to describe anesthesiology and surgical experiences of Role 2 Enhanced (Role 2E) in heart, Afghanistan, from March to May 2014.

Patients and Methods

An observational, descriptive, retrospective study was conducted from March to May 2014. The civilians and military personnel wounded by firearm or explosive detonation in western Afghanistan, who were treated at the Role 2E in herat were included. There were no exclusion criteria.

Results

Seven hundred and forty five patients including 181 Afghan civilians, 82 non-Afghan civilians, 24 Afghan police and military, and 458 military ISAF, were treated during the study period. There were 10 combat casualties among them. All patients were male and aged 25-30 years; seven had been injured by an explosive and three by firearm; five with head-neck wounds, two with wounds in the upper limbs, two in the abdomen, one in the thorax, and one in the lower limbs. The New Injury Severity Score (NISS) was one mild, five moderate and four severe. There were 14 surgical patients (seven wounded in combat and seven non-combat casualties, and 12 patients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). None of them died. A total of 12 general anesthesias, 11 regional anesthesias (three intradural anesthesias, three interscalene blocks, one axillary block and four femoral blocks) and six local anesthesias with sedation were performed.

Background

In 2001 the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Spain authorized the participation of Spanish military units in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in support of the Afghan government. Four years later, Spain assumed control of the Forward Support Base in Herat (Afghanistan). Because of its capabilities, personnel, and equipment NATO considered it as the medical reference installation for the four provinces that form the western region of Afghanistan.

Conclusions

During the study period, 745 patients were treated, including 10 combat casualties. Twelve general anesthesias, 11 regional anesthesias (three intradural anaesthesias, three interscalene blocks, one axillary block, four femoral blocks), and six local anaesthesias with sedation were performed. Twelve patients were admitted to the ICU. These anesthesiological and surgical experiences can be helpful in future military deployments.

Objectives

The current report aimed to describe anesthesiology and surgical experiences of Role 2 Enhanced (Role 2E) in heart, Afghanistan, from March to May 2014.

Patients and Methods

An observational, descriptive, retrospective study was conducted from March to May 2014. The civilians and military personnel wounded by firearm or explosive detonation in western Afghanistan, who were treated at the Role 2E in herat were included. There were no exclusion criteria.

Results

Seven hundred and forty five patients including 181 Afghan civilians, 82 non-Afghan civilians, 24 Afghan police and military, and 458 military ISAF, were treated during the study period. There were 10 combat casualties among them. All patients were male and aged 25-30 years; seven had been injured by an explosive and three by firearm; five with head-neck wounds, two with wounds in the upper limbs, two in the abdomen, one in the thorax, and one in the lower limbs. The New Injury Severity Score (NISS) was one mild, five moderate and four severe. There were 14 surgical patients (seven wounded in combat and seven non-combat casualties, and 12 patients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). None of them died. A total of 12 general anesthesias, 11 regional anesthesias (three intradural anesthesias, three interscalene blocks, one axillary block and four femoral blocks) and six local anesthesias with sedation were performed.

Background

In 2001 the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Spain authorized the participation of Spanish military units in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in support of the Afghan government. Four years later, Spain assumed control of the Forward Support Base in Herat (Afghanistan). Because of its capabilities, personnel, and equipment NATO considered it as the medical reference installation for the four provinces that form the western region of Afghanistan.

Anesthesia;Surgery;Critical Care;Afghanistan Anesthesia;Surgery;Critical Care;Afghanistan http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26799 Ricardo Navarro Suay Ricardo Navarro Suay Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain; Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain. Tel: +34-650989512, Fax: +34-914572269 Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain; Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain. Tel: +34-650989512, Fax: +34-914572269 Rafael Tamburri Bariain Rafael Tamburri Bariain Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain Sergio Castillejo Perez Sergio Castillejo Perez Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain Miguel Angel Garcia Aroca Miguel Angel Garcia Aroca Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Madrid, Spain Ignacio Bodega Quiroga Ignacio Bodega Quiroga Digestive Surgery Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Alcalá de Henares University, Madrid, Spain Digestive Surgery Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Alcalá de Henares University, Madrid, Spain Luis Vicente Saenz Casco Luis Vicente Saenz Casco Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Alcalá de Henares University, Madrid, Spain Critical Care Department, Central University Hospital of Defense “Gómez Ulla”, Alcalá de Henares University, Madrid, Spain Alberto Hernandez Abadia de Barbara Alberto Hernandez Abadia de Barbara Spanish Headquarter, J4B Medical Logistic, Instituto Mixto de Investigación Biosanitaria de la Defensa, Alcalá de Henares University, Madrid, Spain Spanish Headquarter, J4B Medical Logistic, Instituto Mixto de Investigación Biosanitaria de la Defensa, Alcalá de Henares University, Madrid, Spain
en 10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.27950 Neurological Sequels and Their Causes in Patients Hospitalized in the Toxicology Intensive Care Unit of Bahraloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran Neurological Sequels and Their Causes in Patients Hospitalized in the Toxicology Intensive Care Unit of Bahraloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

This study, for the first time in Iran, investigated the frequency and cause of neurological sequels in toxicology ICUs. The findings can improve the prophylaxis and diagnostic programs for the patients in this field.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the frequency of neurological sequels and their causes in patients hospitalized in the toxicology ICUs.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive study, the data of patients admitted in toxicology ICU of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were investigated during a 2-year period (2010 ‒ 2011) and the patients with neurological sequels, based on neurological examination or brain computed tomography (CT) scan findings, were included. Data recorded in questionnaires were analyzed by means of SPSS software, with a significance level at P < 0.05.

Results

Out of 1571 patients admitted in toxicology ICU during this period, 56 patients (3.56%), with the mean ± SD age of 36 ± 13.01 years, were included. The most common finding in neurological examination was the Babinski sign (67.9%). Ischemic encephalopathy with brain edema was the most common finding on the brain CT scans of these patients (33.9%). The mortality rate was 58.9% (33 out of 56). Thirteen patients (23.2%) were discharged with vegetative state. The most common cause of neurological sequel, in this study, was hypoxia (64.3%)

Background

The occurrence of neurologic complications in the intensive care units (ICUs) is one of the major risks in management of patients. These sequels may be caused by structural or metabolic disorders. The same phenomenon can be seen in the toxicology ICUs, although the toxicological effects of drugs and poisons may also cause the neurological complications.

Conclusions

This study, for the first time in Iran, investigated the frequency and cause of neurological sequels in toxicology ICUs. The findings can improve the prophylaxis and diagnostic programs for the patients in this field.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the frequency of neurological sequels and their causes in patients hospitalized in the toxicology ICUs.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive study, the data of patients admitted in toxicology ICU of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were investigated during a 2-year period (2010 ‒ 2011) and the patients with neurological sequels, based on neurological examination or brain computed tomography (CT) scan findings, were included. Data recorded in questionnaires were analyzed by means of SPSS software, with a significance level at P < 0.05.

Results

Out of 1571 patients admitted in toxicology ICU during this period, 56 patients (3.56%), with the mean ± SD age of 36 ± 13.01 years, were included. The most common finding in neurological examination was the Babinski sign (67.9%). Ischemic encephalopathy with brain edema was the most common finding on the brain CT scans of these patients (33.9%). The mortality rate was 58.9% (33 out of 56). Thirteen patients (23.2%) were discharged with vegetative state. The most common cause of neurological sequel, in this study, was hypoxia (64.3%)

Background

The occurrence of neurologic complications in the intensive care units (ICUs) is one of the major risks in management of patients. These sequels may be caused by structural or metabolic disorders. The same phenomenon can be seen in the toxicology ICUs, although the toxicological effects of drugs and poisons may also cause the neurological complications.

Sequels;Tomography;Hypoxia;Intensive Care Units;Toxicology Sequels;Tomography;Hypoxia;Intensive Care Units;Toxicology http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27950 Fakhroddin Taghadosi Nejad Fakhroddin Taghadosi Nejad Department of Legal Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran Department of Legal Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran Mohammad Arefi Mohammad Arefi Department of Legal Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran Department of Legal Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran Arash Okazi Arash Okazi Department of Legal Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran Department of Legal Medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran Azam Moradkhani Azam Moradkhani Forensics Specialist , Forensic Medicine Organization , Tehran , IR Iran Forensics Specialist , Forensic Medicine Organization , Tehran , IR Iran Amir Farshid Fayyaz Amir Farshid Fayyaz Department of Legal Medicine , AJA University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran; Department of Legal Medicine , AJA University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123492060 Department of Legal Medicine , AJA University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran; Department of Legal Medicine , AJA University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123492060
en 10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.26977 Detection of blaSPM-1 Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated From Hospitalized Patients in Isfahan Hospitals Detection of <italic>blaSPM-1 </italic>Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene in Imipenem-Resistant <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> Strains Isolated From Hospitalized Patients in Isfahan Hospitals research-article research-article Background

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, which causes serious problems especially in people who have immunodeficiency. Recently, metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs) resistance in this bacterium has led to some difficulties in treating bacterial infections. The blaSPM-1 is one of the MBL gene families, which induces resistance to the carbapenem class antibiotics; this gene has not been previously assessed in Iran.

Objectives

Detection and quantification of blaSPM-1- metallo-β-lactamase gene among resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (imipenem), isolated from patients in Isfahan hospitals.

Patients and Methods

A total of 180 samples were isolated from various nosocomial infections. These isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using biochemical tests. In order to determine their bacterial drug resistance-pattern the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was utilized. Presence of MBLs in imipenem isolates was detected using the combine disk technique (IMP-EDTA). Similarly, an E-test on Mueller-Hinton agar was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem isolates. The imipenem isolates were then subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the blaSPM-1 gene. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

Results

In total, 96 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Of all isolates, 34 (35.41%) were found to be imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. The MIC levels in all imipenem-resistant strains were MIC ≥ 32 μg/mL. Thirteen (38.23%) of the imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were MBL positive. None of the isolates carried the blaSPM-1 gene, as indicated by the PCR assay.

Conclusions

The rate of imipenem resistance due to MBL has increased dramatically. Early detection and infection-control practices are the best antimicrobial strategy for this organism.

Background

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, which causes serious problems especially in people who have immunodeficiency. Recently, metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs) resistance in this bacterium has led to some difficulties in treating bacterial infections. The blaSPM-1 is one of the MBL gene families, which induces resistance to the carbapenem class antibiotics; this gene has not been previously assessed in Iran.

Objectives

Detection and quantification of blaSPM-1- metallo-β-lactamase gene among resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (imipenem), isolated from patients in Isfahan hospitals.

Patients and Methods

A total of 180 samples were isolated from various nosocomial infections. These isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using biochemical tests. In order to determine their bacterial drug resistance-pattern the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was utilized. Presence of MBLs in imipenem isolates was detected using the combine disk technique (IMP-EDTA). Similarly, an E-test on Mueller-Hinton agar was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem isolates. The imipenem isolates were then subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the blaSPM-1 gene. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

Results

In total, 96 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Of all isolates, 34 (35.41%) were found to be imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. The MIC levels in all imipenem-resistant strains were MIC ≥ 32 μg/mL. Thirteen (38.23%) of the imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were MBL positive. None of the isolates carried the blaSPM-1 gene, as indicated by the PCR assay.

Conclusions

The rate of imipenem resistance due to MBL has increased dramatically. Early detection and infection-control practices are the best antimicrobial strategy for this organism.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa;Imipenem;Nosocomial Infection;blaSPM-1;Metallo-β-Lactamase Pseudomonas aeruginosa;Imipenem;Nosocomial Infection;blaSPM-1;Metallo-β-Lactamase http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26977 Mansour Sedighi Mansour Sedighi Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Amir Hasanzadeh Amir Hasanzadeh Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Saeid Safiri Saeid Safiri Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, IR Iran Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, IR Iran Naeema Syedi Naeema Syedi School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Shayan Mostafaei Shayan Mostafaei Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Jamshid Faghri Jamshid Faghri Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3137922421 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-3137922421
en 10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.27167 The Effects of Immobilization Stress on Serum Ghrelin Level, Food Intake and Body Weight in Male and Female Rats The Effects of Immobilization Stress on Serum Ghrelin Level, Food Intake and Body Weight in Male and Female Rats research-article research-article Background

Stress causes various physiological, histological and behavioral changes.

Objectives

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic immobilization stress on plasma ghrelin level, food intake and body weight in both male and female rats.

Materials and Methods

Twenty male and 20 female rats were studied. These animals were divided to four groups (two control groups and two experimental groups). In the experimental groups, rats were exposed to immobilization stress for 14 days. On the fourteenth day serum ghrelin level was measured by the ELISA kit. Food consumption and body weight change during 14 days were also recorded. Student t-test was used to compare mean among the groups.

Results

In male rats, immobilization stress significantly (P ˂ 0.0001) increased serum ghrelin level and decreased body weight as compared with the control group (P ˂ 0.0001). Food consumption significantly (P ˂ 0.0001) increased in stressed female and male rats.

Conclusions

The results of this study indicate that the effect of stress on serum ghrelin level and body weight is gender-depended.

Background

Stress causes various physiological, histological and behavioral changes.

Objectives

The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic immobilization stress on plasma ghrelin level, food intake and body weight in both male and female rats.

Materials and Methods

Twenty male and 20 female rats were studied. These animals were divided to four groups (two control groups and two experimental groups). In the experimental groups, rats were exposed to immobilization stress for 14 days. On the fourteenth day serum ghrelin level was measured by the ELISA kit. Food consumption and body weight change during 14 days were also recorded. Student t-test was used to compare mean among the groups.

Results

In male rats, immobilization stress significantly (P ˂ 0.0001) increased serum ghrelin level and decreased body weight as compared with the control group (P ˂ 0.0001). Food consumption significantly (P ˂ 0.0001) increased in stressed female and male rats.

Conclusions

The results of this study indicate that the effect of stress on serum ghrelin level and body weight is gender-depended.

Ghrelin;Food Intake;Body Weight Ghrelin;Food Intake;Body Weight http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27167 Parvin Zareian Parvin Zareian Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2144609936 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2144609936 Zohre Genabzadeh Jahromy Zohre Genabzadeh Jahromy Department of Biology, Jahrom Branch Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, IR Iran Department of Biology, Jahrom Branch Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, IR Iran Ahmad Mozafar Ahmad Mozafar Department Of Veterinary, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran Department Of Veterinary, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.28741 A Medical Malpractice Research Conducted in Turkey, Causes and the Role of Media A Medical Malpractice Research Conducted in Turkey, Causes and the Role of Media letter letter Malpractice;Media;Military Hospital Malpractice;Media;Military Hospital http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28741 Pelin Ozmen Pelin Ozmen Department of 2’nd Army Command Health and Veterinary, Malatya, Turkey; Department of 2’nd Army Command Health and Veterinary, Malatya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5334320628 Department of 2’nd Army Command Health and Veterinary, Malatya, Turkey; Department of 2’nd Army Command Health and Veterinary, Malatya, Turkey. Tel: +90-5334320628 Soykan Sahin Soykan Sahin Department of Turkish Fleet Command Health, Golcuk, Turkey Department of Turkish Fleet Command Health, Golcuk, Turkey Mehmet Cetin Mehmet Cetin Department of Military Health Service, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey Department of Military Health Service, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey Yusuf Ziya Turk Yusuf Ziya Turk Department of Military Health Service, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey Department of Military Health Service, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
en 10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.28868 An Innovative Approach to Platelet-Rich Plasma Application in Military Medicine; a Review Article An Innovative Approach to Platelet-Rich Plasma Application in Military Medicine; a Review Article review-article review-article Context

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood production that majorly contains high concentration of platelet and is known for its healing properties. The purpose of this paper was to assess the future application of PRP in military medicine.

Evidence Acquisition

In this review, the appropriate online databases including PubMed, Science Direct, and Wily were searched until January 15, 2015, using free text and MeSH. Only English papers were included such as systematic reviews, clinical trials, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Forty-nine papers were included in this study. Included studies were categorized based on topics related to regenerative characteristics of PRP, and considering at least one clinical output. Data from selected studies were reviewed based on year of publication, animal or human studies, and results. A total of 59 papers including RCTs, case control, and review studies were found among which 49 publications showed favorable outcomes with the use of PRP. The reviewed studies were separated into six groups as follows: Tendon injury, bone injury, wound healing, dermatology, rejuvenation, and hair growth.

Results

According to reviewed studies, use of PRP produced “inconsistent” but "promising" results in early trials. This study attempts to evaluate perspectives of PRP application in regenerative medicine as an efficient treatment and an innovative technology for military medicine through implementation of a review of literature.

Conclusions

This review represents an advantage of PRP application in healing quality such as improved regeneration for bone graft and an enhanced wound-healing rate; however, PRP therapy system has still remained controversial due to the lack of reliable studies.

Context

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood production that majorly contains high concentration of platelet and is known for its healing properties. The purpose of this paper was to assess the future application of PRP in military medicine.

Evidence Acquisition

In this review, the appropriate online databases including PubMed, Science Direct, and Wily were searched until January 15, 2015, using free text and MeSH. Only English papers were included such as systematic reviews, clinical trials, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Forty-nine papers were included in this study. Included studies were categorized based on topics related to regenerative characteristics of PRP, and considering at least one clinical output. Data from selected studies were reviewed based on year of publication, animal or human studies, and results. A total of 59 papers including RCTs, case control, and review studies were found among which 49 publications showed favorable outcomes with the use of PRP. The reviewed studies were separated into six groups as follows: Tendon injury, bone injury, wound healing, dermatology, rejuvenation, and hair growth.

Results

According to reviewed studies, use of PRP produced “inconsistent” but "promising" results in early trials. This study attempts to evaluate perspectives of PRP application in regenerative medicine as an efficient treatment and an innovative technology for military medicine through implementation of a review of literature.

Conclusions

This review represents an advantage of PRP application in healing quality such as improved regeneration for bone graft and an enhanced wound-healing rate; however, PRP therapy system has still remained controversial due to the lack of reliable studies.

Wound Healing;Military Medicine;Bone Wound Healing;Military Medicine;Bone http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28868 Farzad Najafipour Farzad Najafipour Department of Physical Therapy, Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Physical Therapy, Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Milad Darejeh Milad Darejeh Health Insurance Research Center, Armed Forces Insurance Organization, Tehran, IR Iran; Health Insurance Research Center, Armed Forces Insurance Organization, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166733608, Fax: +98-2166726909 Health Insurance Research Center, Armed Forces Insurance Organization, Tehran, IR Iran; Health Insurance Research Center, Armed Forces Insurance Organization, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166733608, Fax: +98-2166726909 Marzieh Moheb Ali Marzieh Moheb Ali Department of Physical Therapy, Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Physical Therapy, Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Farshad Najafipour Farshad Najafipour Department of Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran