Journal of Archives in Military Medicine Journal of Archives in Military Medicine J Arch Mil Med http://www.jammonline.com 2345-5071 2345-5063 10.5812/jamm en jalali 2017 6 25 gregorian 2017 6 25 3 4
en 10.5812/jamm.30431 Alteration of Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Patients With Head and Neck Cancers Following Radiotherapy Alteration of Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Patients With Head and Neck Cancers Following Radiotherapy research-article research-article Conclusions

Lipid peroxidation slightly reduced in patients with head and neck cancers after radiotherapy. However, antioxidant status improved in these patients after radiotherapy.

Results

The levels of antioxidants capacity were significantly increased before radiotherapy in patients in comparison to healthy control (P < 0.05). Moreover, antioxidants capacity levels were significantly enhanced after radiotherapy in patients. Furthermore, lipid oxidation levels slightly decreased after radiotherapy in non-significant manner.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant levels as biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with head and neck cancers.

Patients and Methods

Head and neck cancers were documented by two blinded expert pathologists. Whole saliva samples were collected from 30 patients with head and neck cancers before and after radiotherapy and 30 healthy individuals. The unstimulated whole saliva malondialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were assayed by thiobarbituric acid and decolorization of ABTS radical cation method, respectively. Data was analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.

Background

Head and neck cancers are one of the main causes of cancer related death in the world. The common approach in the treatment of head and neck cancers is radiotherapy either alone or in combination with other therapeutic strategies.

Conclusions

Lipid peroxidation slightly reduced in patients with head and neck cancers after radiotherapy. However, antioxidant status improved in these patients after radiotherapy.

Results

The levels of antioxidants capacity were significantly increased before radiotherapy in patients in comparison to healthy control (P < 0.05). Moreover, antioxidants capacity levels were significantly enhanced after radiotherapy in patients. Furthermore, lipid oxidation levels slightly decreased after radiotherapy in non-significant manner.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant levels as biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with head and neck cancers.

Patients and Methods

Head and neck cancers were documented by two blinded expert pathologists. Whole saliva samples were collected from 30 patients with head and neck cancers before and after radiotherapy and 30 healthy individuals. The unstimulated whole saliva malondialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were assayed by thiobarbituric acid and decolorization of ABTS radical cation method, respectively. Data was analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.

Background

Head and neck cancers are one of the main causes of cancer related death in the world. The common approach in the treatment of head and neck cancers is radiotherapy either alone or in combination with other therapeutic strategies.

Antioxidant;Head and Neck Neoplasms;Malondialdehyde;Oxidative Stress;Radiotherapy Antioxidant;Head and Neck Neoplasms;Malondialdehyde;Oxidative Stress;Radiotherapy http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=30431 Soheila Manifar Soheila Manifar Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farid Abbassi Farid Abbassi Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Iraj Mirzaii Dizgah Iraj Mirzaii Dizgah Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Roya Khatami Roya Khatami Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188956227 Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188956227 Mostafa Esmseil Mostafa Esmseil Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Oral and Dental Disease, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Afshin Almasi Afshin Almasi Clinical Research Development Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran Clinical Research Development Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.31610 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Gelatinose and non-Gelatinose Lichen Species Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Gelatinose and non-Gelatinose Lichen Species research-article research-article Conclusions

It seems that the tested lichens could be effective as antibiotics; especially, in terms of drug resistance, they can be proper substitutes; but, further studies are suggested.

Results

Among the six tested lichens, methanol extracts of P. squamulosum, P. biziana, and L. prophetae-eliae showed relatively high antibacterial activities and also the acetone extraction of L. prophetae-eliae showed antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis and B. cereus. The bacteria were more sensitive than the fungi. The methanol extract of P. squamulosum showed the highest antibacterial activity; besides, the least amount of MIC value was 250 mg/mL.

Objectives

To continue and complete the previous study, this study was designed to assess the antibacterial and antifungal activity of different extractions of lichens.

Materials and Methods

Acetone, methanol and aqueous extractions of the lichens, including Acarospora strigata, Collema crispum, Placidium squamulosum, Physcia biziana, Lecanora prophetae-eliae and Ramalina farinacea, were evaluated in vitro against seven bacterial strains (Escherichia coli ATCC1652, Salmonella typhi ATCC1679, Proteus mirabilis ATCC2601, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC1885, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC2321, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC2405, and Bacillus cereus ATCC13061), and two fungi (Verticillium dahlia, Fusarium moniliforme). The antibacterial activity was estimated via disc diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined via broth tube dilution method.

Background

Despite the wide diversity of the basic growth forms (crustose, squamulose, foliose, and fruticose), all lichens have a similar internal morphology. The bulk of the lichen’s body is formed from filaments of the fungal partner, and the relative density of these filaments defines the layers within the lichen.

Conclusions

It seems that the tested lichens could be effective as antibiotics; especially, in terms of drug resistance, they can be proper substitutes; but, further studies are suggested.

Results

Among the six tested lichens, methanol extracts of P. squamulosum, P. biziana, and L. prophetae-eliae showed relatively high antibacterial activities and also the acetone extraction of L. prophetae-eliae showed antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis and B. cereus. The bacteria were more sensitive than the fungi. The methanol extract of P. squamulosum showed the highest antibacterial activity; besides, the least amount of MIC value was 250 mg/mL.

Objectives

To continue and complete the previous study, this study was designed to assess the antibacterial and antifungal activity of different extractions of lichens.

Materials and Methods

Acetone, methanol and aqueous extractions of the lichens, including Acarospora strigata, Collema crispum, Placidium squamulosum, Physcia biziana, Lecanora prophetae-eliae and Ramalina farinacea, were evaluated in vitro against seven bacterial strains (Escherichia coli ATCC1652, Salmonella typhi ATCC1679, Proteus mirabilis ATCC2601, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC1885, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC2321, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC2405, and Bacillus cereus ATCC13061), and two fungi (Verticillium dahlia, Fusarium moniliforme). The antibacterial activity was estimated via disc diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined via broth tube dilution method.

Background

Despite the wide diversity of the basic growth forms (crustose, squamulose, foliose, and fruticose), all lichens have a similar internal morphology. The bulk of the lichen’s body is formed from filaments of the fungal partner, and the relative density of these filaments defines the layers within the lichen.

Antibacterial Activity;Antifungal Activity;Lichens Antibacterial Activity;Antifungal Activity;Lichens http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31610 Tahereh Valadbeigi Tahereh Valadbeigi Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188028355; +98-9126092197, Fax: +98-2188337921 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, IR Iran; Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188028355; +98-9126092197, Fax: +98-2188337921 Minoo Shaddel Minoo Shaddel Department of Parasitology, Medicine Faculty, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Parasitology, Medicine Faculty, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.30876 Deployment and Risk Factors of Low Back Pain Among Iranian Soldiers Deployment and Risk Factors of Low Back Pain Among Iranian Soldiers research-article research-article Conclusions

In this study older age, lack of support from leaders, psychological stress, awkward working positions, and working in depots or storehouses were significantly associated with LBP after the adjustment of all other variables. Preventive measures should include predeployment preparation of leaders to cope with LBP and other musculoskeletal troubles among their subordinates and involve trained medical staff and specialized physiotherapists, advising soldiers of different military occupational specialties on how to optimize ergonomics at work.

Background

Risk factors for low back pain (LBP) among the deployed forces are still under shadow, while the consequences of LBP are already clarified.

Objectives

This study aimed to identify the LBP risk factors associated with deployment-related exposures.

Patients and Methods

This study was conducted as a questionnaire-based cohort study, in which 3862 Iranian soldiers participated.

Results

Of the 1360 respondents, 350 (26%) reported LBP. The potential of nonresponse bias for the population of respondents was adjusted and the relationships between explanatory variables and LBP were analyzed using models of ordinal logistic regression. After the adjustment of all other variables, older age (P = 0.016), support from leaders (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, P = 0.019), psychological stress (OR = 1.71, P = 0.009), working in depots or storehouses (OR = 2.60, P = 0.041), and awkward working positions (OR = 1.98, P = 0.001) were found to be associated with LBP. Maneuver and traffic accidents, sport or exposure to work, and lifestyle were not associated with LBP in this study, which was the result of the actual deployment only.

Conclusions

In this study older age, lack of support from leaders, psychological stress, awkward working positions, and working in depots or storehouses were significantly associated with LBP after the adjustment of all other variables. Preventive measures should include predeployment preparation of leaders to cope with LBP and other musculoskeletal troubles among their subordinates and involve trained medical staff and specialized physiotherapists, advising soldiers of different military occupational specialties on how to optimize ergonomics at work.

Background

Risk factors for low back pain (LBP) among the deployed forces are still under shadow, while the consequences of LBP are already clarified.

Objectives

This study aimed to identify the LBP risk factors associated with deployment-related exposures.

Patients and Methods

This study was conducted as a questionnaire-based cohort study, in which 3862 Iranian soldiers participated.

Results

Of the 1360 respondents, 350 (26%) reported LBP. The potential of nonresponse bias for the population of respondents was adjusted and the relationships between explanatory variables and LBP were analyzed using models of ordinal logistic regression. After the adjustment of all other variables, older age (P = 0.016), support from leaders (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, P = 0.019), psychological stress (OR = 1.71, P = 0.009), working in depots or storehouses (OR = 2.60, P = 0.041), and awkward working positions (OR = 1.98, P = 0.001) were found to be associated with LBP. Maneuver and traffic accidents, sport or exposure to work, and lifestyle were not associated with LBP in this study, which was the result of the actual deployment only.

Low Back Pain;Risk Factors Low Back Pain;Risk Factors http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=30876 Farzad Najafipour Farzad Najafipour Department of Physical Therapy, Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Physical Therapy, Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Farshad Najafipour Farshad Najafipour Department of Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166733608, Fax: +98-2166726909 Department of Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2166733608, Fax: +98-2166726909 Ahura Ahmadi Ahura Ahmadi Department of Community Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Community Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Milad Darejeh Milad Darejeh Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.29690 Marital Satisfaction and Its Components in Families of Naval Officers Marital Satisfaction and Its Components in Families of Naval Officers research-article research-article Conclusions

Given the importance of the military in safeguarding our borders, the study found that public health is relatively good in the four studied forces, but the pilot families should pay some more attention to their health to achieve improved public health.

Patients and Methods

The sample in this study included 200 families of naval officers who were selected through stratified sampling method

Results

The results showed that the officers’ families of shallow subsurface, marines and pilots differed in terms of public health. The findings also showed that in families of small-scale pilot officers, subscales physical symptoms, sleep disturbances, symptoms of anxiety, and depression symptoms subscale scores were higher. There was a difference in the marital satisfaction and its components among different families of the naval officers. To explain the findings, we had to note that the mean of marital satisfaction and its subscales in the three groups of naval families (i.e. surface forces, submarine forces and marine forces) was different from the families of the naval pilot officers. Consequently, since the group of naval pilot families had the highest level of difference both in the general variable of marital satisfaction and its subscales, it is necessary to study this subject further in future researches.

Background

The health of military families including factors affecting the productivity and satisfaction of employees and armed forces are of great importance.

Objectives

This study aimed to compare the public health and scale corresponding to the four groups of military families (surface, subsurface, marines, and pilots).

Conclusions

Given the importance of the military in safeguarding our borders, the study found that public health is relatively good in the four studied forces, but the pilot families should pay some more attention to their health to achieve improved public health.

Patients and Methods

The sample in this study included 200 families of naval officers who were selected through stratified sampling method

Results

The results showed that the officers’ families of shallow subsurface, marines and pilots differed in terms of public health. The findings also showed that in families of small-scale pilot officers, subscales physical symptoms, sleep disturbances, symptoms of anxiety, and depression symptoms subscale scores were higher. There was a difference in the marital satisfaction and its components among different families of the naval officers. To explain the findings, we had to note that the mean of marital satisfaction and its subscales in the three groups of naval families (i.e. surface forces, submarine forces and marine forces) was different from the families of the naval pilot officers. Consequently, since the group of naval pilot families had the highest level of difference both in the general variable of marital satisfaction and its subscales, it is necessary to study this subject further in future researches.

Background

The health of military families including factors affecting the productivity and satisfaction of employees and armed forces are of great importance.

Objectives

This study aimed to compare the public health and scale corresponding to the four groups of military families (surface, subsurface, marines, and pilots).

Marital Satisfaction;Naval Families Marital Satisfaction;Naval Families http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29690 Farnoush Etminan Farnoush Etminan Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran; Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123603573 Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran; Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123603573 Eghbal Zarei Eghbal Zarei Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran Kourosh Mohammadi Kourosh Mohammadi Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.29352 Shedding Light on the Hidden Corners of Sampling Shedding Light on the Hidden Corners of Sampling review-article review-article Context

One assumption is very crucial in many inferences in standard statistical methods: the sample should be independent and identically distributed. A lot of studies are conducted each year based on real data, gathered from some finite populations using a finite population sampling design. Many of them are analyzed by young researchers using common statistical softwares. Although, many softwares operate on independent and identically assumption, most finite population sampling design do not generate samples with this quality.

Conclusions

According to the results it is very important to be careful about planning a design to sample a population and also be careful to analyze each data according to relative design.

Evidence Acquisition

Here, we investigated some finite population designs to find out when a sample is reasonably independent and identically distributed.

Results

Results show Simple Random Sampling with replacement just generate independent and identical sample, Simple Random Sampling without replacement and cluster sampling almost generate such sample and Stratified Sampling almost doesn’t generate such sample.

Context

One assumption is very crucial in many inferences in standard statistical methods: the sample should be independent and identically distributed. A lot of studies are conducted each year based on real data, gathered from some finite populations using a finite population sampling design. Many of them are analyzed by young researchers using common statistical softwares. Although, many softwares operate on independent and identically assumption, most finite population sampling design do not generate samples with this quality.

Conclusions

According to the results it is very important to be careful about planning a design to sample a population and also be careful to analyze each data according to relative design.

Evidence Acquisition

Here, we investigated some finite population designs to find out when a sample is reasonably independent and identically distributed.

Results

Results show Simple Random Sampling with replacement just generate independent and identical sample, Simple Random Sampling without replacement and cluster sampling almost generate such sample and Stratified Sampling almost doesn’t generate such sample.

Sampling Design;Independent Sample;Identically Distributed Sample Sampling Design;Independent Sample;Identically Distributed Sample http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=29352 Bardia Panahbehagh Bardia Panahbehagh Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188329220, Fax: +98-2177602988 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2188329220, Fax: +98-2177602988
en 10.5812/jamm.34456 The 41st ICMM World Congress on Military Medicine, so far, so Close! The 41st ICMM World Congress on Military Medicine, so far, so Close! letter letter Indonesia Indonesia http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34456 Ali Reza Khoshdel Ali Reza Khoshdel Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188337909 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2188337909