Journal of Archives in Military Medicine Journal of Archives in Military Medicine J Arch Mil Med http://www.jammonline.com 2345-5071 2345-5063 10.5812/jamm en jalali 2017 6 25 gregorian 2017 6 25 4 2
en 10.5812/jamm.36833 Is The Exercise-Induced Increase in Central Arterial Stiffness a Risk Factor for Health? Is The Exercise-Induced Increase in Central Arterial Stiffness a Risk Factor for Health? discussion discussion

Central arterial stiffness (CAS) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. If in one side, exercise training can reduce CAS and protect health; on the other side, CAS might be increased in individuals with very strenuous training routines. This chronic increase in CAS is observed acutely, right after a strenuous exercise session. Both chronic and acute increases in CAS are associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as left ventricle hypertrophy, reduction in baroreceptor sensitivity, increased aneurism formation and stroke incidence; besides, they contribute to hypertension, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, dementia and atherosclerosis. However, there are many reasons to believe that trained individuals are protected by other training adaptations and that increased CAS would not be too dangerous in these cases. Nevertheless, even when CAS is increased through exercise training, other harmful adaptations (e g, left ventricle hypertrophy) are aroused together. After debating these questions along the text, it was concluded that individuals should make a complete clinical check-up when decided to face strenuous training routines. A new debate is suggested: personalized exercise programs might be prescribed according to individual cardiovascular risks including CAS and the guidelines for exercise prescriptions proposed by health organizations need to attend these special cases.

Central arterial stiffness (CAS) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. If in one side, exercise training can reduce CAS and protect health; on the other side, CAS might be increased in individuals with very strenuous training routines. This chronic increase in CAS is observed acutely, right after a strenuous exercise session. Both chronic and acute increases in CAS are associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as left ventricle hypertrophy, reduction in baroreceptor sensitivity, increased aneurism formation and stroke incidence; besides, they contribute to hypertension, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, dementia and atherosclerosis. However, there are many reasons to believe that trained individuals are protected by other training adaptations and that increased CAS would not be too dangerous in these cases. Nevertheless, even when CAS is increased through exercise training, other harmful adaptations (e g, left ventricle hypertrophy) are aroused together. After debating these questions along the text, it was concluded that individuals should make a complete clinical check-up when decided to face strenuous training routines. A new debate is suggested: personalized exercise programs might be prescribed according to individual cardiovascular risks including CAS and the guidelines for exercise prescriptions proposed by health organizations need to attend these special cases.

Exercise;Vascular Stiffness;Cardiovascular Physiology Exercise;Vascular Stiffness;Cardiovascular Physiology http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36833 Amanda Veiga Sardeli Amanda Veiga Sardeli Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, FISEX, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Tel: +55-1935216625, Fax: +55-1935216750 Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, FISEX, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Tel: +55-1935216625, Fax: +55-1935216750 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, FISEX, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, FISEX, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
en 10.5812/jamm.38945 Commanders of the 21st Century: Different Skills of Today Commanders Commanders of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century: Different Skills of Today Commanders letter letter Health;Military Medicine;Leadership Skills Health;Military Medicine;Leadership Skills http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38945 Farshad Najafipour Farshad Najafipour Iranian Committee of Military Medicine, Tehran, IR Iran; Iranian Committee of Military Medicine, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122971143 Iranian Committee of Military Medicine, Tehran, IR Iran; Iranian Committee of Military Medicine, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122971143
en 10.5812/jamm.39341 Endless Improvement of Transfusion Medicine in Military Medical Organizations Endless Improvement of Transfusion Medicine in Military Medical Organizations editorial editorial Transfusion Medicine;Military Medical;Blood Transfusion Transfusion Medicine;Military Medical;Blood Transfusion http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=39341 Ali Reza Khoshdel Ali Reza Khoshdel Epidemiology Research Centre, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Epidemiology Research Centre, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Epidemiology Research Centre, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Epidemiology Research Centre, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
en 10.5812/jamm.27314 Effects of Substrate and Electrodeposition Parameters on the Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite Coating Effects of Substrate and Electrodeposition Parameters on the Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite Coating research-article research-article Background

Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used in hard-tissue repair applications, such as implant coatings and bone substitutes, because of its stability under in vivo conditions and its osteoconductivity.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA coating applied on two different metallic materials that are used as implants, with regard to the substrate and electrochemical parameters of their microstructure.

Materials and Methods

HA coating was applied on AZ31 magnesium alloy and stainless steel 304, metallic materials used as implants, and the effects of the substrate and electrochemical parameters on their microstructure were investigated.

Results

It was observed that at 2 V potential and 85°C for AZ31 and steel 304, the coatings did not have proper coverage and the grains were coarse. By hindering the grain growth, complete coverage with a uniform and fine structure will be achieved. There was a difference in morphology that was probably due to the different open circuit potentials of these two alloys. Magnesium alloys have more negative potential, in which H2 formation can hinder growth of HA flakes, but in Ti base alloys, the formation of H2 gas does not easily form in the working potential, so the HA coating can grow easily.

Conclusions

Nanosized HA coating can be obtained on stainless steel 304, AZ31 magnesium alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V by cathodic deposition using pulse and direct cathodic electrodeposition from a proper electrolyte solution, regardless of the substrate material.

Background

Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used in hard-tissue repair applications, such as implant coatings and bone substitutes, because of its stability under in vivo conditions and its osteoconductivity.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA coating applied on two different metallic materials that are used as implants, with regard to the substrate and electrochemical parameters of their microstructure.

Materials and Methods

HA coating was applied on AZ31 magnesium alloy and stainless steel 304, metallic materials used as implants, and the effects of the substrate and electrochemical parameters on their microstructure were investigated.

Results

It was observed that at 2 V potential and 85°C for AZ31 and steel 304, the coatings did not have proper coverage and the grains were coarse. By hindering the grain growth, complete coverage with a uniform and fine structure will be achieved. There was a difference in morphology that was probably due to the different open circuit potentials of these two alloys. Magnesium alloys have more negative potential, in which H2 formation can hinder growth of HA flakes, but in Ti base alloys, the formation of H2 gas does not easily form in the working potential, so the HA coating can grow easily.

Conclusions

Nanosized HA coating can be obtained on stainless steel 304, AZ31 magnesium alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V by cathodic deposition using pulse and direct cathodic electrodeposition from a proper electrolyte solution, regardless of the substrate material.

Microstructure;Hydroxyapatite;Coating Microstructure;Hydroxyapatite;Coating http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27314 Mostafa Shahrezaei Mostafa Shahrezaei Department of Orthopedic Surgery, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Orthopedic Surgery, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Elnaz Mirtaheri Elnaz Mirtaheri Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran Hamed Miryousefi Hamed Miryousefi Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122086627 Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122086627 Mohsen Saremi Mohsen Saremi Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.37334 Retrospective Analysis of Role II Military Hospital Emergency Department Admissions in Operation Enduring Freedom of Afghanistan Retrospective Analysis of Role II Military Hospital Emergency Department Admissions in Operation Enduring Freedom of Afghanistan research-article research-article Conclusions

Humanitarian care facilities, including medical assistance, are still vital for the Afghan society. Participation of women and/or Muslim caregivers may enhance accessibility, particularly for Afghan women. We believe that the availability of emergency medicine facilities in a hospital setting at a reachable location for Afghan civilians is an effective and profitable choice for medical services. In terms of emergency medicine, the department should be prepared for orthopedic traumas, combat injuries including mine and gunshot wounds, and burn injuries.

Results

During the 12-month study period, 4348 patients were admitted to our emergency department. Admissions were evaluated as two groups according to trauma exposure of the patients and we detected that the Afghan civilian group had a higher number of admissions with stab wounds and burn injuries compared to the other groups. Moreover, our study results presents higher rates of surgical, orthopedic, and mixed treatments on the Afghan civilian group compared with other groups of patients.

Background

The North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)-led international security and assistance force (ISAF) conducted training, development, and humanitarian activities in addition to security operations during its 13 years in Afghanistan.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to present the emergency department experiences of Kabul Ataturk Role II military hospital.

Materials and Methods

We performed a retrospective observational study of emergency department admissions at Kabul Ataturk Role II Military hospital during a 12-month period from August 2012 through July 2013.

Conclusions

Humanitarian care facilities, including medical assistance, are still vital for the Afghan society. Participation of women and/or Muslim caregivers may enhance accessibility, particularly for Afghan women. We believe that the availability of emergency medicine facilities in a hospital setting at a reachable location for Afghan civilians is an effective and profitable choice for medical services. In terms of emergency medicine, the department should be prepared for orthopedic traumas, combat injuries including mine and gunshot wounds, and burn injuries.

Results

During the 12-month study period, 4348 patients were admitted to our emergency department. Admissions were evaluated as two groups according to trauma exposure of the patients and we detected that the Afghan civilian group had a higher number of admissions with stab wounds and burn injuries compared to the other groups. Moreover, our study results presents higher rates of surgical, orthopedic, and mixed treatments on the Afghan civilian group compared with other groups of patients.

Background

The North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)-led international security and assistance force (ISAF) conducted training, development, and humanitarian activities in addition to security operations during its 13 years in Afghanistan.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to present the emergency department experiences of Kabul Ataturk Role II military hospital.

Materials and Methods

We performed a retrospective observational study of emergency department admissions at Kabul Ataturk Role II Military hospital during a 12-month period from August 2012 through July 2013.

Afghanistan;Delivery of Health Care;Humanitarian Care;Burn;Emergency Department Afghanistan;Delivery of Health Care;Humanitarian Care;Burn;Emergency Department http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37334 Necati Salman Necati Salman Department of Emergency, Etimesgut Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Emergency, Etimesgut Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Emergency, Etimesgut Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Emergency, Etimesgut Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Onur Tezel Onur Tezel Department of Emergency, Etimesgut Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Department of Emergency, Etimesgut Military Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Atif Bayramoglu Atif Bayramoglu Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey Ulvi Mehmet Meral Ulvi Mehmet Meral Department of General Surgery, Izmir Military Hospital, Izmir, Turkey Department of General Surgery, Izmir Military Hospital, Izmir, Turkey Faruk Akyildiz Faruk Akyildiz Department of Orthopedic, Malatya Military Hospital, Malatya, Turkey Department of Orthopedic, Malatya Military Hospital, Malatya, Turkey Mehmet Eryilmaz Mehmet Eryilmaz Department of Emergency Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey Department of Emergency Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey
en 10.5812/jamm.39275 Oral Health Profile in Iranian Armed Force: Focusing on Prevention Strategies Oral Health Profile in Iranian Armed Force: Focusing on Prevention Strategies research-article research-article Conclusions

Although, oral health profile for Iranian military units was better than the civilian population, Improvements in prevention services, oral health education and periodontal treatments are essential in the Iranian armed forces, particularly in Navy and Air-Force.

Background

Oral health is a major element of general health. Dental caries, periodontal diseases and oropharyngeal cancers are among the major health challenges in developed and developing countries.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the oral health indices, including the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal indices, oral diseases and other related variables in Iranian military forces.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 420 active-duty male individuals were selected from the Iranian ground force (GF), Air Force (AF), Navy, marine and submarine (NY) and the commander general headquarters (CG). A WHO-approved and regionally validated questionnaire was used and clinical observation was performed based on a standard protocol.

Results

The mean age of the participants was 34.76 (± 8.16) years. The mean DMFT for the total groups was 9.67 (± 5.34) and 3.3% of them were caries-free, while 21.9% of the cases had root caries. The mean number of existing teeth was 25.4 (± 3.26). Among 11760 teeth that were examined, 9.73% had caries. The mean healthy sextant was 2.58% per person, while 45.5% of sextants had calculus. A community periodontal index was equal to 3 in 49.6% of the individuals. No history of oral health education was reported in 66% of the study group and the frequency of systematic disease comorbidities was 24.7%. Navy, in particular, had a greater oral health problems compared to other forces. For instance, 91.7% of all participants from Navy had calculus at least in one sextant. Periodontal pockets were also reported in more than 40.4% of the Navy forces. Interestingly, there was a significant and direct association between cardiovascular diseases and DMFT (P = 0.014) after adjustment for age.

Conclusions

Although, oral health profile for Iranian military units was better than the civilian population, Improvements in prevention services, oral health education and periodontal treatments are essential in the Iranian armed forces, particularly in Navy and Air-Force.

Background

Oral health is a major element of general health. Dental caries, periodontal diseases and oropharyngeal cancers are among the major health challenges in developed and developing countries.

Objectives

This study aimed to evaluate the oral health indices, including the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal indices, oral diseases and other related variables in Iranian military forces.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 420 active-duty male individuals were selected from the Iranian ground force (GF), Air Force (AF), Navy, marine and submarine (NY) and the commander general headquarters (CG). A WHO-approved and regionally validated questionnaire was used and clinical observation was performed based on a standard protocol.

Results

The mean age of the participants was 34.76 (± 8.16) years. The mean DMFT for the total groups was 9.67 (± 5.34) and 3.3% of them were caries-free, while 21.9% of the cases had root caries. The mean number of existing teeth was 25.4 (± 3.26). Among 11760 teeth that were examined, 9.73% had caries. The mean healthy sextant was 2.58% per person, while 45.5% of sextants had calculus. A community periodontal index was equal to 3 in 49.6% of the individuals. No history of oral health education was reported in 66% of the study group and the frequency of systematic disease comorbidities was 24.7%. Navy, in particular, had a greater oral health problems compared to other forces. For instance, 91.7% of all participants from Navy had calculus at least in one sextant. Periodontal pockets were also reported in more than 40.4% of the Navy forces. Interestingly, there was a significant and direct association between cardiovascular diseases and DMFT (P = 0.014) after adjustment for age.

Oral Health;Army Force;Dental Caries;Periodontal Diseases;Calculus;Health Education Oral Health;Army Force;Dental Caries;Periodontal Diseases;Calculus;Health Education http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=39275 Laleh Khalilazar Laleh Khalilazar School of Dentistry, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Dentistry, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ali Reza Khoshdel Ali Reza Khoshdel Modern Epidemiology Research Centre, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Modern Epidemiology Research Centre, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Modern Epidemiology Research Centre, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Modern Epidemiology Research Centre, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran