Journal of Archives in Military Medicine Journal of Archives in Military Medicine J Arch Mil Med http://www.jammonline.com 2345-5071 2345-5063 10.5812/jamm en jalali 2017 6 25 gregorian 2017 6 25 4 4
en 10.5812/jamm.38447 The Frequency of Knee-Joint Injuries Caused by Sports Activities Among the Armed Forces Personnel The Frequency of Knee-Joint Injuries Caused by Sports Activities Among the Armed Forces Personnel research-article research-article Conclusions

The prevalence of injuries in lower limbs is more frequent than other limbs. Ligament injury is high among the armed forces personnel. Among the ligament injuries, the most frequently observed case was anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Most knee injuries in this research were observed in the dominant leg and the muscle injuries in the dominant leg can be reduced through appropriate strength training program and muscle balancing to opposemuscles.

Results

The most frequent injuries were observed in the lower limbs (73% )and ankles (38.7%), respectively. The third most common injury was observed in knees (13.4%). Among the knee injuries, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (77.82%) and meniscus (63.8%) were most prevalent. Also, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (6.6%) and medial collateral ligament (3.8%), the lateral collateral ligament (2.3%) and other injuries, including chondromalacia, osteoarthritis, etc. were reported.

Background

Doing hard physical exercises help empowering military forces to carry out their duties and missions. However, blindly following this aim may cause physical damages which lead to their temporary or permanent disability.

Objectives

The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of knee injuries resulting from sports activities among the armed forces personnel in 2010.

Methods

It was a descriptive and retrospective study. All the armed forces personnel (n = 4203) covered by Kosar insurance in 2010 participated in the study. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS version 18 at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05.

Conclusions

The prevalence of injuries in lower limbs is more frequent than other limbs. Ligament injury is high among the armed forces personnel. Among the ligament injuries, the most frequently observed case was anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Most knee injuries in this research were observed in the dominant leg and the muscle injuries in the dominant leg can be reduced through appropriate strength training program and muscle balancing to opposemuscles.

Results

The most frequent injuries were observed in the lower limbs (73% )and ankles (38.7%), respectively. The third most common injury was observed in knees (13.4%). Among the knee injuries, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (77.82%) and meniscus (63.8%) were most prevalent. Also, posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (6.6%) and medial collateral ligament (3.8%), the lateral collateral ligament (2.3%) and other injuries, including chondromalacia, osteoarthritis, etc. were reported.

Background

Doing hard physical exercises help empowering military forces to carry out their duties and missions. However, blindly following this aim may cause physical damages which lead to their temporary or permanent disability.

Objectives

The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of knee injuries resulting from sports activities among the armed forces personnel in 2010.

Methods

It was a descriptive and retrospective study. All the armed forces personnel (n = 4203) covered by Kosar insurance in 2010 participated in the study. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS version 18 at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05.

Injuries;Sports Injuries;Knee Joint Injuries;Sports Injuries;Knee Joint http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38447 Zahra Rezasoltani Zahra Rezasoltani Research Center of Clinical Biomechanics & Ergonomics, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Center of Clinical Biomechanics & Ergonomics, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center of Clinical Biomechanics & Ergonomics, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Research Center of Clinical Biomechanics & Ergonomics, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Faeze Dehghan Faeze Dehghan AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ali Azizan Ali Azizan AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Afsaneh Dadarkhah Afsaneh Dadarkhah Research Center of Clinical Biomechanics & Ergonomics, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center of Clinical Biomechanics & Ergonomics, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farhad Yadegarian Farhad Yadegarian AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.42332 Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis with Ultrasound-Guided Injection of Platelets Rich Plasma Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis with Ultrasound-Guided Injection of Platelets Rich Plasma research-article research-article Conclusions

The current study results revealed that both methods were effective and successful to treat PF, but due to potential complication of corticosteroid and its short-term relief of pain, PRP injection looked safer.

Results

In both corticosteroid and PRP injected groups, the average VAS heel pain scores and the mean FAAM subscales scores were statistically lower compared with the pre-treatment scores (P < 0.001). The improving symptoms in the corticosteroid group at the beginning (after three weeks) were better and then decreased after eight weeks, but the differences were not significant; while in the PRP group symptoms progressively improved.

Background

Plantar fasciitis (PF) is one of the common reasons of heel pain that making up 11% - 15% professional managements for the foot symptoms among adults.

Objectives

The current study aimed to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided (US-guided) injection of platelets rich plasma (PRP) with that of corticosteroid injection to treat patients with chronic PF.

Methods

Patients with PF (n = 30) were assigned to receive either PRP or corticosteroid US-guided injection. The pain level was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) the baseline, three and eight weeks after injection. Disabilities were assessed by foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM) at the baseline, three and eight weeks after injection.

Conclusions

The current study results revealed that both methods were effective and successful to treat PF, but due to potential complication of corticosteroid and its short-term relief of pain, PRP injection looked safer.

Results

In both corticosteroid and PRP injected groups, the average VAS heel pain scores and the mean FAAM subscales scores were statistically lower compared with the pre-treatment scores (P < 0.001). The improving symptoms in the corticosteroid group at the beginning (after three weeks) were better and then decreased after eight weeks, but the differences were not significant; while in the PRP group symptoms progressively improved.

Background

Plantar fasciitis (PF) is one of the common reasons of heel pain that making up 11% - 15% professional managements for the foot symptoms among adults.

Objectives

The current study aimed to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided (US-guided) injection of platelets rich plasma (PRP) with that of corticosteroid injection to treat patients with chronic PF.

Methods

Patients with PF (n = 30) were assigned to receive either PRP or corticosteroid US-guided injection. The pain level was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) the baseline, three and eight weeks after injection. Disabilities were assessed by foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM) at the baseline, three and eight weeks after injection.

Plantar Fasciitis;Platelets Rich Plasma;Corticosteroid Plantar Fasciitis;Platelets Rich Plasma;Corticosteroid http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=42332 Kaynoosh Homayouni Kaynoosh Homayouni Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Hajar Karimian Hajar Karimian Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Hamid Reza Golkar Hamid Reza Golkar Department of Internal Medicine, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Department of Internal Medicine, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran Nayyereh Jalalati Nayyereh Jalalati Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131613537 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9131613537
en 10.5812/jamm.42367 The Effect of Cross-Linking Agents and Collagen Concentrations on Properties of Collagen Scaffolds The Effect of Cross-Linking Agents and Collagen Concentrations on Properties of Collagen Scaffolds research-article research-article Results

The results confirmed that the extracted collagen is pure and free of any non-collagen protein contamination. Furthermore, the results showed that average pore size of the scaffolds from EDC/NHS cross-linker with molar ratio of 1:1 (I) was less than the scaffolds that were made using EDC/NHS cross-linker with molar ratio of 2:1 (II). Moreover, collagen samples that were cross-linked using 1:1 EDC/NHS molar ratios showed increased mechanical strength comparing to 2:1 EDC/NHS molar ratio.

Background

Collagen-based scaffolds are appealing products for various applications in pharmaceutics and tissue engineering and military applications like wound healing.

Objectives

This study was conducted to extract acid soluble collagen protein from calf skin tissue and cross-linked it using cross-linking agents. The collagen scaffolds with different 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) / N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) molar ratios as cross-linking agents were investigated.

Methods

The type I extracted collagen was used as a raw material for making collagen based scaffolds. Different EDC/NHS molar ratios as cross-linking agents were used. Matrix morphology and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were determined to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the collagen matrices with different cross-linker molar ratios. Furthermore collagen and cross-linked collagen were characterized using standard methods like SDS- page, FT-IR and SEM analysis.

Conclusions

The applied protocol is a convenient method for extraction of collagen and obtaining pure calf skin collage type I. Furthermore the best molar ratio of EDC/NHS cross-linking agents to cross-link collagen is 1:1 for obtaining stronger collagen structure.

Results

The results confirmed that the extracted collagen is pure and free of any non-collagen protein contamination. Furthermore, the results showed that average pore size of the scaffolds from EDC/NHS cross-linker with molar ratio of 1:1 (I) was less than the scaffolds that were made using EDC/NHS cross-linker with molar ratio of 2:1 (II). Moreover, collagen samples that were cross-linked using 1:1 EDC/NHS molar ratios showed increased mechanical strength comparing to 2:1 EDC/NHS molar ratio.

Background

Collagen-based scaffolds are appealing products for various applications in pharmaceutics and tissue engineering and military applications like wound healing.

Objectives

This study was conducted to extract acid soluble collagen protein from calf skin tissue and cross-linked it using cross-linking agents. The collagen scaffolds with different 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) / N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) molar ratios as cross-linking agents were investigated.

Methods

The type I extracted collagen was used as a raw material for making collagen based scaffolds. Different EDC/NHS molar ratios as cross-linking agents were used. Matrix morphology and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were determined to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the collagen matrices with different cross-linker molar ratios. Furthermore collagen and cross-linked collagen were characterized using standard methods like SDS- page, FT-IR and SEM analysis.

Conclusions

The applied protocol is a convenient method for extraction of collagen and obtaining pure calf skin collage type I. Furthermore the best molar ratio of EDC/NHS cross-linking agents to cross-link collagen is 1:1 for obtaining stronger collagen structure.

Collagen;Scaffold;Cross-link Collagen;Scaffold;Cross-link http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=42367 Majid Jafari-Sabet Majid Jafari-Sabet Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Pharm D, PhD, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (Iums), Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-2186703120 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Pharm D, PhD, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences (Iums), Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-2186703120 Habib Nasiri Habib Nasiri AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Medical Genetics, Nika Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Tehran, Iran AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Medical Genetics, Nika Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Tehran, Iran Ramin Ataee Ramin Ataee Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
en 10.5812/jamm.44043 Building the Neglected Anesthetic Practice in Post-War Afghanistan: An Experience of a Decade of Rehabilitation Building the Neglected Anesthetic Practice in Post-War Afghanistan: An Experience of a Decade of Rehabilitation brief-report brief-report

The Indian Medical Mission, which included a surgical team, was established in 2001 after the fall of Taliban in Mazar-e Sharief in Afghanistan. The practice of anaesthesiology was not only primitive but also rudimentary. It was an arduous task for the successive anesthesiologist to propagate the scientific aspect of the subject and demonstrate the need for its dedicated practice in patient outcomes. The Anaesthesiologist conducted 22,856 surgeries in the operation theatre given to Indian medical mission (IMM) and provided consultation for more than 50,000 cases. The successive teams trained the doctors, and helped to establish the department of anaesthesiology at Balk Medical University in a sincere effort to promote the subject. Afghanistan stands in the twilight of a long journey in providing comprehensive health care to its population. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade and a firm base for the specialty of anaesthesiology has been built, a great deal of work is still to be done. The continued development of the specialty will require joint commitment and action from all health agencies in Afghanistan. Lastly, for anaesthesiology to develop in a professional manner, the trained anesthesiologists, themselves, must play a pivotal role and establish professional societies for its permanent growth.

The Indian Medical Mission, which included a surgical team, was established in 2001 after the fall of Taliban in Mazar-e Sharief in Afghanistan. The practice of anaesthesiology was not only primitive but also rudimentary. It was an arduous task for the successive anesthesiologist to propagate the scientific aspect of the subject and demonstrate the need for its dedicated practice in patient outcomes. The Anaesthesiologist conducted 22,856 surgeries in the operation theatre given to Indian medical mission (IMM) and provided consultation for more than 50,000 cases. The successive teams trained the doctors, and helped to establish the department of anaesthesiology at Balk Medical University in a sincere effort to promote the subject. Afghanistan stands in the twilight of a long journey in providing comprehensive health care to its population. Although considerable progress has been made in the past decade and a firm base for the specialty of anaesthesiology has been built, a great deal of work is still to be done. The continued development of the specialty will require joint commitment and action from all health agencies in Afghanistan. Lastly, for anaesthesiology to develop in a professional manner, the trained anesthesiologists, themselves, must play a pivotal role and establish professional societies for its permanent growth.

Anesthesia Practices;Post War Afghanistan;Rehabilitation Anesthesia Practices;Post War Afghanistan;Rehabilitation http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=44043 Parli Raghavan Ravi Parli Raghavan Ravi Senior Adviser (Anaesthesiology) 5 Air Force Hospital; Senior Adviser (Anaesthesiology) 5 Air Force Hospital. Tel: +81-05425508 Senior Adviser (Anaesthesiology) 5 Air Force Hospital; Senior Adviser (Anaesthesiology) 5 Air Force Hospital. Tel: +81-05425508 MN Vijai MN Vijai Classified Specialist (Anaesthesiology) 11 AFH Hindon Ghaziabad UP Classified Specialist (Anaesthesiology) 11 AFH Hindon Ghaziabad UP
en 10.5812/jamm.44324 Grenade Explosion Leading to Penetrative Brain Trauma and Demise of Three Children during High Altitude Counter Insurgency Operations Grenade Explosion Leading to Penetrative Brain Trauma and Demise of Three Children during High Altitude Counter Insurgency Operations case-report case-report

Unexploded ordnance from old wars and conflicts pose a serious threat in war and conflict zones. An incident of abandoned grenade explosion during high altitude counter insurgency operations led to penetrative brain trauma and demise of three children. A high index of suspicion is warranted with aged/expired/unexploded ordnance, which may have unstable explosive ingredients; and hence, could pose a threat to the military.

Unexploded ordnance from old wars and conflicts pose a serious threat in war and conflict zones. An incident of abandoned grenade explosion during high altitude counter insurgency operations led to penetrative brain trauma and demise of three children. A high index of suspicion is warranted with aged/expired/unexploded ordnance, which may have unstable explosive ingredients; and hence, could pose a threat to the military.

Blast Injury;Grenade;Explosion;Unexploded Ordnance;High Altitude;Counter Insurgency;Civil-Military Medicine Blast Injury;Grenade;Explosion;Unexploded Ordnance;High Altitude;Counter Insurgency;Civil-Military Medicine http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=44324 Inam Danish Khan Inam Danish Khan Assistant Professor (Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases), Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt 110010, India; Assistant Professor (Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases), Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt 110010, India. Tel: +91-9836569777, Fax: +91-1125693490 Assistant Professor (Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases), Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt 110010, India; Assistant Professor (Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases), Army College of Medical Sciences and Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt 110010, India. Tel: +91-9836569777, Fax: +91-1125693490
en 10.5812/jamm.41832 Toxoplasmosis Among Patients with Immunocompromising Conditions: A Snapshot Toxoplasmosis Among Patients with Immunocompromising Conditions: A Snapshot letter letter Toxoplasma gondii;Toxoplasmosis;Latent Infection;Cancer;Transplant Recipients;HIV/AIDS Toxoplasma gondii;Toxoplasmosis;Latent Infection;Cancer;Transplant Recipients;HIV/AIDS http://www.jammonline.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=41832 Amir Abdoli Amir Abdoli Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Mohammad Barati Mohammad Barati Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-2143822990 Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-2143822990 Abdolhossein Dalimi Abdolhossein Dalimi Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Majid Pirestani Majid Pirestani Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Seyyed Javad Hoseini Shokouh Seyyed Javad Hoseini Shokouh Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran