Journal of Archives in Military Medicine

Published by: Kowsar

Assessment of Consensus-Based Pharmacological Therapies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Seyed Reza Abtahi 1 , * and Parvin Zareian 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Journal of Archives in Military Medicine: August 31, 2015, 3 (3); e30057
  • Published Online: August 24, 2015
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: May 18, 2015
  • Revised: May 26, 2015
  • Accepted: June 8, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/jamm.30057

To Cite: Abtahi S R, Zareian P. Assessment of Consensus-Based Pharmacological Therapies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome, J Arch Mil Med. 2015 ; 3(3):e30057. doi: 10.5812/jamm.30057.

Abstract
Copyright © 2015, AJA University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Footnote
References
  • 1. Camilleri M, Chang L. Challenges to the therapeutic pipeline for irritable bowel syndrome: end points and regulatory hurdles. Gastroenterology. 2008; 135(6): 1877-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Schwetz I, Bradesi S, Mayer EA. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Minerva Med. 2004; 95(5): 419-26[PubMed]
  • 3. Hammer J, Eslick GD, Howell SC, Altiparmak E, Talley NJ. Diagnostic yield of alarm features in irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. Gut. 2004; 53(5): 666-72[PubMed]
  • 4. Talley NJ, Spiller R. Irritable bowel syndrome: a little understood organic bowel disease? Lancet. 2002; 360(9332): 555-64[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Verne GN, Robinson ME, Price DD. Hypersensitivity to visceral and cutaneous pain in the irritable bowel syndrome. Pain. 2001; 93(1): 7-14[PubMed]
  • 6. Harvey RF, Salih SY, Read AE. Organic and functional disorders in 2000 gastroenterology outpatients. Lancet. 1983; 1(8325): 632-4[PubMed]
  • 7. Saito YA, Locke GR, Talley NJ, Zinsmeister AR, Fett SL, Melton L3. A comparison of the Rome and Manning criteria for case identification in epidemiological investigations of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95(10): 2816-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Tack J, Fried M, Houghton LA, Spicak J, Fisher G. Systematic review: the efficacy of treatments for irritable bowel syndrome--a European perspective. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 24(2): 183-205[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Boyce PM, Talley NJ, Burke C, Koloski NA. Epidemiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorders diagnosed according to Rome II criteria: an Australian population-based study. Intern Med J. 2006; 36(1): 28-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Drossman DA. Gastroenterology. 2010; 130: 1377-90
  • 11. Lovell RM, Ford AC. Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 10(7): 712-721 e4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Dean BB, Aguilar D, Barghout V, Kahler KH, Frech F, Groves D, et al. Impairment in work productivity and health-related quality of life in patients with IBS. Am J Manag Care. 2005; 11(1 Suppl)-26[PubMed]
  • 13. Sun SX, Dibonaventura M, Purayidathil FW, Wagner JS, Dabbous O, Mody R. Impact of chronic constipation on health-related quality of life, work productivity, and healthcare resource use: an analysis of the National Health and Wellness Survey. Dig Dis Sci. 2011; 56(9): 2688-95[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Chang L. Review article: epidemiology and quality of life in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 20 Suppl 7: 31-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Dunlop SP, Jenkins D, Neal KR, Spiller RC. Relative importance of enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia, anxiety, and depression in postinfectious IBS. Gastroenterology. 2003; 125(6): 1651-9[PubMed]
  • 16. Andrews EB, Eaton SC, Hollis KA, Hopkins JS, Ameen V, Hamm LR, et al. Prevalence and demographics of irritable bowel syndrome: results from a large web-based survey. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 22(10): 935-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Thompson WG, Heaton KW, Smyth GT, Smyth C. Irritable bowel syndrome in general practice: prevalence, characteristics, and referral. Gut. 2000; 46(1): 78-82[PubMed]
  • 18. Heaton KW, Radvan J, Cripps H, Mountford RA, Braddon FE, Hughes AO. Defecation frequency and timing, and stool form in the general population: a prospective study. Gut. 1992; 33(6): 818-24[PubMed]
  • 19. Mearin F, Balboa A, Badia X, Baro E, Caldwell E, Cucala M, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome subtypes according to bowel habit: revisiting the alternating subtype. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003; 15(2): 165-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Gralnek IM, Hays RD, Kilbourne A, Naliboff B, Mayer EA. The impact of irritable bowel syndrome on health-related quality of life. Gastroenterology. 2000; 119(3): 654-60[PubMed]
  • 21. Hahn B, Watson M, Yan S, Gunput D, Heuijerjans J. Irritable bowel syndrome symptom patterns: frequency, duration, and severity. Dig Dis Sci. 1998; 43(12): 2715-8[PubMed]
  • 22. Swarbrick ET, Hegarty JE, Bat L, Williams CB, Dawson AM. Site of pain from the irritable bowel. Lancet. 1980; 2(8192): 443-6[PubMed]
  • 23. Whorwell PJ, Clouter C, Smith CL. Oesophageal motility in the irritable bowel syndrome. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981; 282(6270): 1101-2[PubMed]
  • 24. Mertz H, Naliboff B, Munakata J, Niazi N, Mayer EA. Altered rectal perception is a biological marker of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 1995; 109(1): 40-52[PubMed]
  • 25. van Wijk HJ, Smout AJ, Akkermans LM, Roelofs JM, ten Thije OJ. Gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27(2): 99-102[PubMed]
  • 26. van der Voort IR, Osmanoglou E, Seybold M, Heymann-Monnikes I, Tebbe J, Wiedenmann B, et al. Electrogastrography as a diagnostic tool for delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2003; 15(5): 467-73[PubMed]
  • 27. Caballero-Plasencia AM, Valenzuela-Barranco M, Herrerias-Gutierrez JM, Esteban-Carretero JM. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999; 26(4): 404-9[PubMed]
  • 28. Welgan P, Meshkinpour H, Ma L. Role of anger in antral motor activity in irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2000; 45(2): 248-51[PubMed]
  • 29. Kumar D, Wingate D. Irritable bowel syndrome: a paroxysmal motor disorder. Lancet. 1986; 1(8481): 620-1[PubMed]
  • 30. Muller-Lissner S, Koch G, Talley NJ, Drossman D, Rueegg P, Dunger-Baldauf C, et al. Subject's Global Assessment of Relief: an appropriate method to assess the impact of treatment on irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms in clinical trials. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003; 56(4): 310-6[PubMed]
  • 31. Fukudo S, Kanazawa M, Kano M, Sagami Y, Endo Y, Utsumi A, et al. Exaggerated motility of the descending colon with repetitive distention of the sigmoid colon in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol. 2002; 37 Suppl 14: 145-50[PubMed]
  • 32. Posserud I, Agerforz P, Ekman R, Bjornsson ES, Abrahamsson H, Simren M. Altered visceral perceptual and neuroendocrine response in patients with irritable bowel syndrome during mental stress. Gut. 2004; 53(8): 1102-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Fink RN, Lembo AJ. Intestinal Gas. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2001; 4(4): 333-7[PubMed]
  • 34. Narducci F, Bassotti G, Granata MT, Pelli MA, Gaburri M, Palumbo R, et al. Colonic motility and gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Effect of pretreatment with octylonium bromide. Dig Dis Sci. 1986; 31(3): 241-6[PubMed]
  • 35. Chey WY, Jin HO, Lee MH, Sun SW, Lee KY. Colonic motility abnormality in patients with irritable bowel syndrome exhibiting abdominal pain and diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96(5): 1499-506[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Sullivan MA, Cohen S, Snape WJ. Colonic myoelectrical activity in irritable-bowel syndrome. Effect of eating and anticholinergics. N Engl J Med. 1978; 298(16): 878-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Rogers J, Henry MM, Misiewicz JJ. Increased segmental activity and intraluminal pressures in the sigmoid colon of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 1989; 30(5): 634-41[PubMed]
  • 38. Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Gastric distension and duodenal lipid infusion modulate intestinal gas transit and tolerance in humans. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97(9): 2225-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Lembo T, Naliboff B, Munakata J, Fullerton S, Saba L, Tung S, et al. Symptoms and visceral perception in patients with pain-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94(5): 1320-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Dainese R, Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Effects of physical activity on intestinal gas transit and evacuation in healthy subjects. Am J Med. 2004; 116(8): 536-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Dainese R, Serra J, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. Influence of body posture on intestinal transit of gas. Gut. 2003; 52(7): 971-4[PubMed]
  • 42. Passos MC, Serra J, Azpiroz F, Tremolaterra F, Malagelada JR. Impaired reflex control of intestinal gas transit in patients with abdominal bloating. Gut. 2005; 54(3): 344-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Houghton LA, Whorwell PJ. Towards a better understanding of abdominal bloating and distension in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2005; 17(4): 500-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Van Oudenhove L, Demyttenaere K, Tack J, Aziz Q. Central nervous system involvement in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2004; 18(4): 663-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Vahedi H, Merat S, Rashidioon A, Ghoddoosi A, Malekzadeh R. The effect of fluoxetine in patients with pain and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind randomized-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 22(5): 381-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Spiller R. Serotonin and GI clinical disorders. Neuropharmacology. 2008; 55(6): 1072-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Camilleri M, Andresen V. Current and novel therapeutic options for irritable bowel syndrome management. Dig Liver Dis. 2009; 41(12): 854-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. McLean PG, Borman RA, Lee K. 5-HT in the enteric nervous system: gut function and neuropharmacology. Trends Neurosci. 2007; 30(1): 9-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 49. Gershon MD, Tack J. The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders. Gastroenterology. 2007; 132(1): 397-414[DOI][PubMed]
  • 50. Patrizi F, Freedman SD, Pascual-Leone A, Fregni F. Novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of chronic abdominal visceral pain. ScientificWorldJournal. 2006; 6: 472-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Trinkley KE, Nahata MC. Medication management of irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion. 2014; 89(4): 253-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. Leventer SM, Raudibaugh K, Frissora CL, Kassem N, Keogh JC, Phillips J, et al. Clinical trial: dextofisopam in the treatment of patients with diarrhoea-predominant or alternating irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 27(2): 197-206[DOI][PubMed]
  • 53. Camilleri M. Novel pharmacology: asimadoline, a kappa-opioid agonist, and visceral sensation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008; 20(9): 971-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Shekhar C, Whorwell PJ. Emerging drugs for irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2009; 14(4): 673-85[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Delgado-Aros S, Chial HJ, Cremonini F, Ferber I, McKinzie S, Burton DD, et al. Effects of asimadoline, a kappa-opioid agonist, on satiation and postprandial symptoms in health. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003; 18(5): 507-14[PubMed]
  • 56. Delvaux M, Beck A, Jacob J, Bouzamondo H, Weber FT, Frexinos J. Effect of asimadoline, a kappa opioid agonist, on pain induced by colonic distension in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 20(2): 237-46[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Szarka LA, Camilleri M, Burton D, Fox JC, McKinzie S, Stanislav T, et al. Efficacy of on-demand asimadoline, a peripheral kappa-opioid agonist, in females with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 5(11): 1268-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 58. Mangel AW, Hicks GA. Asimadoline and its potential for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a review. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2012; 5: 1-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 59. Mozaffari S, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Metabolic and toxicological considerations for the latest drugs used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2013; 9(4): 403-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 60. Jailwala J, Imperiale TF, Kroenke K. Pharmacologic treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med. 2000; 133(2): 136-47[PubMed]
  • 61. Poynard T, Regimbeau C, Benhamou Y. Meta-analysis of smooth muscle relaxants in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 15(3): 355-61[PubMed]
  • 62. American College of Gastroenterology Task Force on Irritable Bowel S, Brandt LJ, Chey WD, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Schiller LR, Schoenfeld PS, et al. An evidence-based position statement on the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104 Suppl 1-35[DOI][PubMed]
  • 63. Dann RHD, Brunton LL. Irritable bowel syndrome. Goodman and Gilman's Manual of pharmacology and therapeutics. 2014; : 812-3
  • 64. Kruis W, Weinzierl M, Schussler P, Holl J. Comparison of the therapeutic effect of wheat bran, mebeverine and placebo in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Digestion. 1986; 34(3): 196-201[PubMed]
  • 65. Camilleri M. Pharmacology and clinical experience with alosetron. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000; 9(1): 147-59[DOI][PubMed]
  • 66. Lucak S. Irritable bowel syndrome and ischemic colitis: evidence supporting the increased use of alosetron. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012; 5(4): 215-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 67. Lesbros-Pantoflickova D, Michetti P, Fried M, Beglinger C, Blum AL. Meta-analysis: The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 20(11-12): 1253-69[DOI][PubMed]
  • 68. Imtiaz M, Qadir MI. Management of irritable bowel syndrome. Management of irritable bowel syndrome. 2011; 2(2): 11-4
  • 69. Cremonini F, Delgado-Aros S, Camilleri M. Efficacy of alosetron in irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2003; 15(1): 79-86[PubMed]
  • 70. Chey WD, Chey WY, Heath AT, Dukes GE, Carter EG, Northcutt A, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of alosetron in women with severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99(11): 2195-203[DOI][PubMed]
  • 71. Caras S, Krause G, Biesheuvel E, Steinborn C. Cilansetron shows efficacy in male and female non-constipated patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a United States study. Gastroenterology. 2001; 120(5)[DOI]
  • 72. Bracco A, Jonsson B, Ricci JF, Drummond M, Nyhlin H. Economic evaluation of tegaserod vs. placebo in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: an analysis of the TENOR study. Value Health. 2007; 10(4): 238-46[DOI][PubMed]
  • 73. Novick J, Miner P, Krause R, Glebas K, Bliesath H, Ligozio G, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tegaserod in female patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 16(11): 1877-88[PubMed]
  • 74. Reilly MC, Barghout V, McBurney CR, Niecko TE. Effect of tegaserod on work and daily activity in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 22(5): 373-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 75. McLaughlin J, Houghton LA. The rationale, efficacy and safety evidence for tegaserod in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006; 5(2): 313-27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 76. Muller-Lissner SA, Fumagalli I, Bardhan KD, Pace F, Pecher E, Nault B, et al. Tegaserod, a 5-HT(4) receptor partial agonist, relieves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients with abdominal pain, bloating and constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 15(10): 1655-66[PubMed]
  • 77. Tack J, Muller-Lissner S, Bytzer P, Corinaldesi R, Chang L, Viegas A, et al. A randomised controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of repeated tegaserod therapy in women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Gut. 2005; 54(12): 1707-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 78. Tack J, van Outryve M, Beyens G, Kerstens R, Vandeplassche L. Prucalopride (Resolor) in the treatment of severe chronic constipation in patients dissatisfied with laxatives. Gut. 2009; 58(3): 357-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 79. Ford AC. Renzapride in IBS: is efficacy in the eye of the beholder? Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 32(1): 113-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 80. Ben-Menachem E. Pregabalin pharmacology and its relevance to clinical practice. Epilepsia. 2004; 45 Suppl 6: 13-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 81. Houghton LA, Fell C, Whorwell PJ, Jones I, Sudworth DP, Gale JD. Effect of a second-generation alpha2delta ligand (pregabalin) on visceral sensation in hypersensitive patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 2007; 56(9): 1218-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 82. Lacy BE, Levy LC. Lubiprostone: a novel treatment for chronic constipation. Clin Interv Aging. 2008; 3(2): 357-64[PubMed]
  • 83. Barish CF, Drossman D, Johanson JF, Ueno R. Efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation. Dig Dis Sci. 2010; 55(4): 1090-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 84. Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. Use of psychopharmacological agents for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut. 2005; 54(9): 1332-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 85. Chey WD, Lembo AJ, Lavins BJ, Shiff SJ, Kurtz CB, Currie MG, et al. Linaclotide for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and safety. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012; 107(11): 1702-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 86. Lembo AJ, Kurtz CB, Macdougall JE, Lavins BJ, Currie MG, Fitch DA, et al. Efficacy of linaclotide for patients with chronic constipation. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138(3): 886-95 e1[DOI][PubMed]
  • 87. Corsetti M, Tack J. Linaclotide: A new drug for the treatment of chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. United European Gastroenterol J. 2013; 1(1): 7-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 88. Tradtrantip L, Namkung W, Verkman AS. Crofelemer, an antisecretory antidiarrheal proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from Croton lechleri, targets two distinct intestinal chloride channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2010; 77(1): 69-78[DOI][PubMed]
  • 89. Jackson JL, O'Malley PG, Tomkins G, Balden E, Santoro J, Kroenke K. Treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders with antidepressant medications: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2000; 108(1): 65-72[PubMed]
  • 90. Adeyemo MA, Chang L. New treatments for irritable bowel syndrome in women. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2008; 4(6): 605-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 91. Drossman DA, Morris CB, Schneck S, Hu YJ, Norton NJ, Norton WF, et al. International survey of patients with IBS: symptom features and their severity, health status, treatments, and risk taking to achieve clinical benefit. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009; 43(6): 541-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 92. Drossman DA. Beyond tricyclics: new ideas for treating patients with painful and refractory functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104(12): 2897-902[DOI][PubMed]
  • 93. Mertz H, Fass R, Kodner A, Yan-Go F, Fullerton S, Mayer EA. Effect of amitriptyline on symptoms, sleep, and visceral perception in patients with functional dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998; 93(2): 160-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 94. Vahedi H, Merat S, Momtahen S, Kazzazi AS, Ghaffari N, Olfati G, et al. Clinical trial: the effect of amitriptyline in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 27(8): 678-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 95. Bahar RJ, Collins BS, Steinmetz B, Ament ME. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of amitriptyline for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents. J Pediatr. 2008; 152(5): 685-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 96. Mertz HR. Irritable bowel syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349(22): 2136-46[DOI][PubMed]
  • 97. Tack J, Broekaert D, Coulie B, Fischler B, Janssens J. Influence of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, paroxetine, on gastric sensorimotor function in humans. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003; 17(4): 603-8[PubMed]
  • 98. Tabas G, Beaves M, Wang J, Friday P, Mardini H, Arnold G. Paroxetine to treat irritable bowel syndrome not responding to high-fiber diet: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99(5): 914-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 99. Creed F, Fernandes L, Guthrie E, Palmer S, Ratcliffe J, Read N, et al. The cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy and paroxetine for severe irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2003; 124(2): 303-17[DOI][PubMed]
  • 100. Aragona M, Bancheri L, Perinelli D, Tarsitani L, Pizzimenti A, Conte A, et al. Randomized double-blind comparison of serotonergic (Citalopram) versus noradrenergic (Reboxetine) reuptake inhibitors in outpatients with somatoform, DSM-IV-TR pain disorder. Eur J Pain. 2005; 9(1): 33-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 101. Tack J, Broekaert D, Fischler B, Van Oudenhove L, Gevers AM, Janssens J. A controlled crossover study of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 2006; 55(8): 1095-103[DOI][PubMed]
  • 102. Bijkerk CJ, Muris JW, Knottnerus JA, Hoes AW, de Wit NJ. Systematic review: the role of different types of fibre in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 19(3): 245-51[PubMed]
  • 103. Francis CY, Whorwell PJ. Bran and irritable bowel syndrome: time for reappraisal. Lancet. 1994; 344(8914): 39-40[PubMed]
  • 104. Attar A, Lemann M, Ferguson A, Halphen M, Boutron MC, Flourie B, et al. Comparison of a low dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution with lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation. Gut. 1999; 44(2): 226-30[PubMed]
  • 105. Cann PA, Read NW, Holdsworth CD, Barends D. Role of loperamide and placebo in management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Dig Dis Sci. 1984; 29(3): 239-47[PubMed]
  • 106. Lavo B, Stenstam M, Nielsen AL. Loperamide in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome--a double-blind placebo controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1987; 130: 77-80[PubMed]
  • 107. Palmer KR, Corbett CL, Holdsworth CD. Double-blind cross-over study comparing loperamide, codeine and diphenoxylate in the treatment of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 1980; 79(6): 1272-5[PubMed]
  • 108. Williams AJ, Merrick MV, Eastwood MA. Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption--a review of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and response to treatment. Gut. 1991; 32(9): 1004-6[PubMed]
  • 109. Thabane M, Kottachchi DT, Marshall JK. Systematic review and meta-analysis: The incidence and prognosis of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007; 26(4): 535-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 110. Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95(12): 3503-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 111. Riordan SM, McIver CJ, Walker BM, Duncombe VM, Bolin TD, Thomas MC. The lactulose breath hydrogen test and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996; 91(9): 1795-803[PubMed]
  • 112. Talley NJ. Pharmacologic therapy for the irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98(4): 750-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 113. Pimentel M, Lembo A, Chey WD, Zakko S, Ringel Y, Yu J, et al. Rifaximin therapy for patients with irritable bowel syndrome without constipation. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364(1): 22-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 114. Pimentel M, Park S, Mirocha J, Kane SV, Kong Y. The effect of a nonabsorbed oral antibiotic (rifaximin) on the symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 145(8): 557-63[PubMed]
  • 115. Brenner DM, Moeller MJ, Chey WD, Schoenfeld PS. The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104(4): 1033-49[DOI][PubMed]
  • 116. Quigley EM, Flourie B. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome: a rationale for their use and an assessment of the evidence to date. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007; 19(3): 166-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 117. Kajander K, Hatakka K, Poussa T, Farkkila M, Korpela R. A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a controlled 6-month intervention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 22(5): 387-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 118. Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001; 13(10): 1143-7[PubMed]
  • 119. Korpela R, Niittynen L. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2012; 23[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments