The results of this research show that the round neck anomalies have been significantly recovered after the two-month training course while the uneven shoulder, neck flexion, and lordosis anomalies were considerably intensified after the two-month training course. The anomalies of the upper part of the body are related to the spine, which is the main part of the body structure. As the spine is sensitive, it brings in the proper space for the spinal cord which is vulnerable and has an important role for keeping body structure fit. The lordosis leading to the resistance against the vertical forces (body and things weight) provides forces which impresses on body during the physical activity (
7). The above mentioned issues suggest the significant role of the spine. Anomalies in spine may result from different factors such as structural and functional default. The functional default can be recovered by on time detection and proper training. The functional factors leading to anomalies in the body structure include the wrong manner of sitting, resting, carrying, and doing physical exercises, occupations and lack of movement ( 8). The subjects of this research were soldiers who had no jobs. The researches showed that occupation is one of the factors affecting on the structure of body and it is expected that the technical jobs increase the anomalies ( 9, 10). The postural anomalies intensified after the two-month training course, were uneven shoulder, neck flexion and lordosis. As the wrong manners in long walking or doing one way activities and using one hand carrying the heavy things are the main factors of uneven shoulder anomalies, it is probable that the main causes of intensifying these anomalies in soldiers was to carry the gun with one hand in long walking; for instance walking from the training center to shooting center and the manner of taking the gun in military parade. Also the wrong habit of sitting while studying, standing, walking and doing exercise, sight weakness in nearsighted people and using the high pillows when sleeping are the factors of neck flexion, it is likely that the causes of intensifying these anomalies in soldiers are related to the wrong state of body such as standing for a long time and feeling fatigue in neck muscles. On the other hand, the shortness of hip flexor muscles and the muscles of spine in waist and sciatic muscle, belly and hamstring stretch are the main factors of lordosis and the causes of intensifying these anomalies in soldiers maybe resulted from the mass exercises, military parade without warming up, doing the stretchy movements for hip flexor muscles, lack of reinforcing the sciatic muscles, hamstring in physical activity programs, using the inconvenient bed and wrong state of body in sitting and standing. On the other hand, the round back anomalies were recovered significantly after the training course. In 1996, Sinaki et al. found that the stronger the muscles of the back of body are, the less likely is the occurrence of round back, also the research by Ham et al. in 1994 has shown that there is a negative relationship between the frequency of round back anomaly and respiratory capacity, and lateral expansion of the chest. In this regard, it is probable that the round back anomaly in soldiers recovered due to increasing the capacity, especially respiratory capacity which increases by doing the aerobics and physical fitness activities ( 1). In 1990, in recognition of congenital kyphosis Bvkhn student Germany study entitled "Leibniz Czech" and "Hyadnbrand" The study was conducted among 2075 students aged 10 to 17 years old who were randomly selected from five schools were tested, in terms of abnormal thoracic kyphosis. The most important results of the research were: A) Students who have had thoracic kyphosis, exercised less and their families’ orthopedic disease is more frequent with back pain. B) The degree of kyphosis in students was measured and recorded. The degree of kyphosis was 12 in girls and boys 3/10 degrees in boys ( 11).
Jrygl Morris et al. study has determined the prevalence of postural abnormalities in neck, shoulders and chest in two age groups of healthy subjects (age group of 21 to 35 years with a mean of 25 and the age group of 36 to 50 years with a mean of 47). 3.87% had anomaly in right shoulder, 66% had the anomaly in the left shoulder, 55% had malformations of the head to the front and 38% had kyphosis. In this study no relationship was found between the severity of deformity and pain (
Conclusions: With regard to these findings, it can be concluded that during the two-month training course, it is essential to emphasis on making the soldiers familiar with the proper physical condition of sitting, walking, sleeping and carrying the things specially carrying the gun and devoting the activities to the upper parts of body while carrying the things and doing other daily physical activities, keeping the range of neck and head movement to all directions, controlling the sight of soldiers and strengthening the sciatic muscle, belly and hamstring and stretching the hip flexors and straightening the spine of waist. As the recovery of postural anomalies is easier in the lower age group due to the flexibility of muscles and joints, it is essential to adopt corrective measures, by including the comments of this research, we can provide the proper backgrounds for prevention and treatment during the military training course.