This research has evaluated the amount of peoples’ propensity with different temperaments to different color circumstantiality for the first time. The evaluated hypothesis was confirmed based on results of the research. By evaluation of propensities of 4 responder temperaments to color circumstantiality, the 2 temperaments of WW and CD had the most difference in the selection compared with other temperaments in both fields of the selection of single-color and colorful spaces. This difference was obtained significant in both circumstantiality of darkness-lightness and coldness-warmth of color in both fields of selection of single-color and colorful spaces.
Placing 2 temperaments of WW and CD as the completely temperaments in terms of temperamental components in the both heads of the range shows the direct effect of temperamental differences on propensity to qualitative indexes of color and because these 2 temperaments have a perceptible difference in their selection, the differences were obtained significant. According to propensities of temperamental groups to color circumstantiality, the relationship has been analyzed between components of temperament and peoples’ propensities.
4.1. Component of Darkness and Lightness of Color
According to the significant difference of propensity of 2 temperamental groups of wet and dry to quality of darkness and lightness of color in the both fields of selection of single-color and colorful spaces,order of propensity of temperaments to dark colors, and a space with dark tonality as CD, WD, CW, and WW it can be said that dry temperaments have more propensity to dark colors and spaces with dark tonality than the wet temperaments. The wet temperaments have more propensity to light colors and spaces with light tonality. Therefore, the factor of dryness and wetness of temperament can be known as an effective factor in peoples’ propensity to quality of darkness and lightness of color in the both evaluated fields.
Life, flexibility, and vitality are features of the wet temperaments while people with dry temperament accept laws more and are more invincible (
9, 10). In this regard, it seems that people’s propensity with wet and dry temperaments to darkness and lightness of colors is in line with their temperamental features. Psychologists believe that there is a relationship between physical needs of body and selection of light or dark colors ( 6). 4.2. Component of Coldness and Warmth of Color Spectrum
According to the significant difference of propensity of 2 temperamental groups of warm and cold to colors with warm and cold spectrum in the 2 fields of selection of single-color and colorful spaces, it can be said that the factor of warmth and coldness of temperament is effective on propensity of people to quality of cold and warm colors. The order of propensity of temperaments to warm colors as WW, WD, CW, and CD shows that warm temperaments have more propensity to warm colors than the cold temperaments and cold temperaments have more propensity to cold colors. The results were obtained opposite of the above sequence in selection of spaces with cold or warm tonality. Temperaments of CD, CW, WD, and WW, respectively, have the most propensity to spaces with warm tonality against spectrum of cold colors. The existence of difference in propensity to color and colorful spaces shows that people have different opinions in propensity to colors according to function of color.
Human discriminates a temperature by observation of colors. It's an instinctive feeling that has been hidden in the humans’ existence and enabled him to feel coldness and warmth by the help of colors. The experience has proven that humans can feel 7 grades of heat or cold at his workplace by his feeling. In a workshop that its color is blue or green and has 15 grades of temperature, a temperature is felt and another workshop that has been painted red or orange and has temperature of 11 to 13 grade, the same temperature is perceived. Therefore it becomes clear that cold colors such as green and blue reduce temperature and warm colors such as red and orange increases heat (
According to the issue that humans move in line to reach to inner balance, it seems that people with warm temperament who have the heat of temperament from inside and are basically sensitive to heat, have more propensity to a space with cold tonality that leads to feel more coolness. In this regard, people’s propensity with cold temperament is to spaces with warm color spectrum. In the selection of space, due to the person who imagines himself in a setting of high volume of color, he prefers to select a color complementary to his temperament and in line with balancing his inner status. In view of traditional medicine, health means balancing the temperament and whatever the temperament to become closer to the balance point, the feeling of spiritual and physical health will become more (
11, 12). The obtained results in this part are in line with results of psychologists’ experiments. Psychologist doctors found that as in the Korangi test, people can be divided into 2 groups of sensitive to warm and cold colors. Furthermore, it can be accepted that visual and conceptual apparatus of a group of people, amount of warm colors, and on another group amount of cold colors will be more. It seems in this way that people who are more sensitive to warm colors have extroverted personality and strong emotions and vice versa people who are more sensitive or cold colors have introverted personality ( 7).
The following figures relatively shows a difference of temperamental groups’ interests to each other to light and dark colors, cold and warm colors, and spaces with light and dark tonality and also cold and warm.
Figure 3. Relationship Between Tendency to Colors and Temperaments
Figure 4. Relationship Between Tendency to Colored Space and Temperaments
Generally it can be said that people’s temperaments have a significant relationship with their selective color. However selecting a character of color for people can be affected by several factors. Individual experiences, gender factors, culture, age, and special mental conditions such as depression or passion can be effective on selecting the favorite color or environmental color. Due to the fact that the principle of the present research has been founded on human’s physical and mental indexes, the process is passed according to involved factors and the obtained results are not definitely. Morals and moods of humans are placed in a range as well as spectrum and gradual change of some temperamental features is possible based on an increase of age and changing the environmental conditions. According to the thin border between the 4 temperaments, the accurate temperamental division of people seems difficult and requires the high accuracy. However relying on the passed way, the temperament-assessment of users, and evaluation of their propensities, it seems that the obtained results to be extensible. Familiarity with this principle helps designers to pay attention to humans’ differences with each other in designing architectural spaces and urban bodies. It can also be used in designing important workplaces like military rooms for improving work efficiency. In the case of not knowing these differences, the architect considers his conditions and spiritual propensities as the basis in designing. According to quick change of time and stability of propensities as well as the general mental and physical needs of a human, it seems that it is necessary for urban designers and architects to become familiar with temperamental principles, which include physical and spiritual conditions of users of spaces to be respected anthropological principles along with modernity of methods and building tools.
The temperamental rooting of propensity to color has not been conducted yet. Due to the fact that the basis of resulted principle has been founded on mental and physical condition of humans, it can be effective on the world styles of architecture as a human-based principle. It is obvious that by not complying with physical principles, based on anthropological indexes, certainly a responder and relaxing space will be not designed for human’s living.